Exposomes to exosomes: exosomes as tools to study epigenetic adaptive mechanisms in high-altitude humans

  • Humans on earth inhabit a wide range of environmental conditions and some environments are more challenging for human survival than others. However, many living beings, including humans, have developed adaptive mechanisms to live in such inhospitable, harsh environments. Among different difficult environments, high-altitude living is especially demanding because of diminished partial pressure of oxygen and resulting chronic hypobaric hypoxia. This results in poor blood oxygenation and reduces aerobic oxidative respiration in the mitochondria, leading to increased reactive oxygen species generation and activation of hypoxia-inducible gene expression. Genetic mechanisms in the adaptation to high altitude is well-studied, but there are only limited studies regarding the role of epigenetic mechanisms. The purpose of this review is to understand the epigenetic mechanisms behind high-altitude adaptive and maladaptive phenotypes. Hypobaric hypoxia is a form of cellular hypoxia, which is similar to the one suffered by critically-ill hypoxemia patients. Thus, understanding the adaptive epigenetic signals operating in in high-altitude adjusted indigenous populations may help in therapeutically modulating signaling pathways in hypoxemia patients by copying the most successful epigenotype. In addition, we have summarized the current information about exosomes in hypoxia research and prospects to use them as diagnostic tools to study the epigenome of high-altitude adapted healthy or maladapted individuals.

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Author:Manju Padmasekar ChandrasekarORCiD, Rajkumar SavaiORCiDGND, Werner SeegerORCiDGND, Soni Savai PullamsettiORCiDGND
Parent Title (English):International journal of environmental research and public health
Publisher:MDPI AG
Place of publication:Basel
Document Type:Article
Date of Publication (online):2021/08/05
Date of first Publication:2021/08/05
Publishing Institution:Universit├Ątsbibliothek Johann Christian Senckenberg
Release Date:2022/06/15
Tag:epigenetics; exosomes; high-altitude adaptation; high-altitude pulmonary hypertension; hypobaric hypoxia
Issue:16, art. 8280
Article Number:8280
Page Number:20
First Page:1
Last Page:20
This work was supported by the Max Planck Society (MPS), Institute for lung health (ILH), Cardio-Pulmonary Institute (CPI), German Center for Lung Research (DZL), DFG, SFB 1213 (Project A01, A05 to SSP and Project A10* to RS), and European Research Council (ERC) Consolidator Grant (#866051 to SSP).
Dewey Decimal Classification:6 Technik, Medizin, angewandte Wissenschaften / 61 Medizin und Gesundheit / 610 Medizin und Gesundheit
Licence (German):License LogoCreative Commons - Namensnennung 4.0