Predominantly eastward long-distance dispersal in pantropical ochnaceae inferred from ancestral range estimation and phylogenomics

  • Ochnaceae is a pantropical family with multiple transoceanic disjunctions at deep and shallow levels. Earlier attempts to unravel the processes that led to such biogeographic patterns suffered from insufficient phylogenetic resolution and unclear delimitation of some of the genera. In the present study, we estimated divergence time and ancestral ranges based on a phylogenomic framework with a well-resolved phylogenetic backbone to tackle issues of the timing and direction of dispersal that may explain the modern global distribution of Ochnaceae. The nuclear data provided the more robust framework for divergence time estimation compared to the plastome-scale data, although differences in the inferred clade ages were mostly small. While Ochnaceae most likely originated in West Gondwana during the Late Cretaceous, all crown-group disjunctions are inferred as dispersal-based, most of them as transoceanic long-distance dispersal (LDD) during the Cenozoic. All LDDs occurred in an eastward direction except for the SE Asian clade of Sauvagesieae, which was founded by trans-Pacific dispersal from South America. The most species-rich clade by far, Ochninae, originated from either a widespread neotropical-African ancestor or a solely neotropical ancestor which then dispersed to Africa. The ancestors of this clade then diversified in Africa, followed by subsequent dispersal to the Malagasy region and tropical Asia on multiple instances in three genera during the Miocene-Pliocene. In particular, Ochna might have used the South Arabian land corridor to reach South Asia. Thus, the pantropical distribution of Ochnaceae is the result of LDD either transoceanic or via land bridges/corridors, whereas vicariance might have played a role only along the stem of the family.
Author:Julio V. SchneiderORCiDGND, Tanja JungcurtGND, Domingos CardosoORCiD, André Márcio AmorimORCiD, Juraj PauleORCiDGND, Georg ZizkaORCiDGND
Parent Title (English):Frontiers in Ecology and Evolution
Publisher:Frontiers Media
Place of publication:Lausanne
Document Type:Article
Date of Publication (online):2022/02/10
Date of first Publication:2022/02/10
Publishing Institution:Universitätsbibliothek Johann Christian Senckenberg
Release Date:2023/07/07
Tag:Malpighiales; boreotropics; historical biogeography; land bridges; molecular clock; phylogenomics; spatio-temporal evolution
Issue:art. 813336
Article Number:813336
Page Number:15
First Page:1
Last Page:15
This study was supported by grants from the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG; ZI 557/14-1), the Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq; Research Productivity Fellowship, grants nos. 308244/2018-4 and 312404/2018-2) and the Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado da Bahia (FAPESB; grant no. APP0037/2016). Open access publication was funded by the Goethe University Frankfurt (institutional membership).
Institutes:Angeschlossene und kooperierende Institutionen / Senckenbergische Naturforschende Gesellschaft
Biowissenschaften / Institut für Ökologie, Evolution und Diversität
Dewey Decimal Classification:5 Naturwissenschaften und Mathematik / 57 Biowissenschaften; Biologie / 570 Biowissenschaften; Biologie
Licence (German):License LogoCreative Commons - CC BY - Namensnennung 4.0 International