Study of single impurity Anderson model and dynamical mean field theory based on equation-of-motion method

• In this thesis, we studied the single impurity Anderson model and developed a new and fast impurity solver for the dynamical mean field theory (DMFT). Using this new impurity solver, we studied the Hubbard model and periodic Anderson model for various parameters. This work is motivated by the fact that the dynamical mean field theory is widely used for the studies of strongly correlated systems, and the most frequently used methods, e.g. the quantum Monte-Carlo method (QMC), and the exact digonalization method are much CPU time consuming and usually limited by the available computers. Therefore, a fast and reliable impurity solver is needed. This new impurity solver was explored based on the equation-of-motion method (also called Green's function and decoupling method in some literature). Using the retarded Green's function, we first derived the equations of motion of Green's functions. Then, we employed a decoupling scheme to close the equations. By solving self-consistently the obtained closed set of integral equations, we obtained the single particle Green's function for the single impurity Anderson model. After that, the single impurity Anderson model was solved along with self-consistency conditions within the framework of DMFT. In this work, we studied and compared two decoupling schemes. Moreover, we also derived possible higher order approximations which will be tested in future work. Besides the theoretical work, we tested the method in numerical calculations. The integral equations are first solved by iterative methods with linear mixing and Broyden mixing, respectively. However, these two methods are not sufficient for finding the self-consistent solutions of the DMFT equations because converged results are difficult to obtain. Moreover, the computing speed of the two methods is also not satisfactory. Especially the iterative method with linear mixing costs always a lot of CPU time due to the required small mixing. Hence, we developed a new method, which is a combination of genetic algorithm and iterative method. This new method converges very fast and removes artifacts appearing in the results from the iterative method with linear and Broyden mixing. It can directly operate on the real axis, where no numerical error from the high frequency tail corrections and the analytical continuation is introduced. In addition, our new technique strongly improves the precision of the numerical results by removing the broadening. With this newly developed impurity solver and numerical technique, we studied the single impurity Anderson model, the single band Hubbard model and the periodic Anderson model with arbitrary spin and orbital degeneracy N on the real axis. For the single impurity Anderson model, the spectral functions are calculated for the infinite and finite Coulomb interaction strength. We also studied the spectral functions in dependence of the parameters of impurity position and hybridization. For the Hubbard model, we studied the bandwidth control and filling control Mott metal-insulator transition for spin and orbital degeneracy N = 2. It gives qualitatively the critical value of Coulomb interaction strength for the Mott metal-insulator transition, and the spectral functions which are comparable to those obtained in QMC and numerical renormalization group methods. We also studied the quasiparticle weight and the self-energy in metallic states. The latter shows almost Fermi liquid behavior. At last we calculated the densities of states for the Hubbard model with arbitrary spin and orbital degeneracy N. The periodic Anderson model (PAM) is also studied as another important lattice model. It was solved for various combinations of parameters: the Coulomb interaction strength, the impurity position, the center position of the conduction band, the hybridization, the spin and orbital degeneracy. The PAM results represents the physics of impurities in a metal. In short, our method works for the Hubbard model and the periodic Anderson model in a large range of parameters, and gives good results. Therefore, our impurity solver could be very useful in calculations within LDA+DMFT. Finally, we also made a preliminary investigation of the multi-band system based on the success in single band case. We first studied the two-band system in a simplified treatment by neglecting the interaction between the two bands through the bath. This has given promising numerical results for the two-band Hubbard model. Moreover, we have studied theoretically the two-band system with mean field approximation and Hubbard-I approximation in dealing with the higher order cross Green's functions which are related to both the two bands. In the mean field approximation, we even generalized the two-band system to arbitrary M=N/2 band system. Potential improvement can be carried out on the basis of this work.
• Die Dynamische Molekularfeldtheorie (DMFT) ist für stark korrelierte Systeme weit verbreitet. In dieser Arbeit wurde das Einzel-Störstellen-Anderson-Modell untersucht und eine neue und schnelle Lösungsmethode für das effektive Einzel-Störstellenmodell im Rahmen der Dynamischen Molekularfeldtheorie entwickelt. Auf dieser Basis wurde das Hubbard-Modell und das periodische Anderson-Modell in verschiedenen Fällen untersucht. Die Arbeit ist motiviert durch die breite Anwendbarkeit der Dynamischen Molekularfeldtheorie bei der Untersuchung von stark korrelierten Systemen. Die am häufigsten verwendeten Methoden wie Quanten-Monte-Carlo (QMC) oder exakte Diagonalisierung sind rechenzeitintensiv und ihre Verwendung wird durch die verfügbare Rechenleistung begrenzt. Daher ist eine schnelle und zuverlässige Lösungsmethode für das effektive Störstellenproblem nicht nur wünschenswert sondern auch notwendig. ...