The enhancement of v4 in nuclear collisions at the highest densities signals a first-order phase transition

  • The beam energy dependence of v4 (the quadrupole moment of the transverse radial flow) is sensitive to the nuclear equation of state (EoS) in mid-central Au + Au collisions at the energy range of 3<sNN−−−−√<30 GeV, which is investigated within the hadronic transport model JAM. Different equations of state, namely, a free hadron gas, a first-order phase transition and a crossover are compared. An enhancement of v4 at sNN−−−−√≈6 GeV is predicted for an EoS with a first-order phase transition. This enhanced v4 flow is driven by both the enhancement of v2 as well as the positive contribution to v4 from the squeeze-out of spectator particles which turn into participants due to the admixture of the strong collective flow in the shocked, compressed nuclear matter.

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Author:Yasushi Nara, Jan Steinheimer-Froschauer, Horst StöckerORCiDGND
Parent Title (English):The European physical journal / A / Hadrons and nuclei
Document Type:Article
Year of Completion:2018
Date of first Publication:2018/11/06
Publishing Institution:Universitätsbibliothek Johann Christian Senckenberg
Release Date:2019/04/09
Page Number:5
This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Institutes:Physik / Physik
Dewey Decimal Classification:5 Naturwissenschaften und Mathematik / 53 Physik / 530 Physik
Licence (German):License LogoCreative Commons - Namensnennung 4.0