Regulation and functions of 15-lipoxygenases in human macrophages

  • Lipoxygenases (LOXs) catalyze the stereo-specific peroxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) to their corresponding hydroperoxy derivatives. Human macrophages express two arachidonic acid (AA) 15-lipoxygenating enzymes classified as ALOX15 and ALOX15B. ALOX15, which was first described in 1975, has been extensively characterized and its biological functions have been investigated in a number of cellular systems and animal models. In macrophages, ALOX15 functions to generate specific phospholipid (PL) oxidation products crucial for orchestrating the nonimmunogenic removal of apoptotic cells (ACs) as well as synthesizing precursor lipids required for production of specialized pro-resolving mediators (SPMs) that facilitate inflammation resolution. The discovery of ALOX15B in 1997 was followed by comprehensive analyses of its structural properties and reaction specificities with PUFA substrates. Although its enzymatic properties are well described, the biological functions of ALOX15B are not fully understood. In contrast to ALOX15 whose expression in human monocyte-derived macrophages is strictly dependent on Th2 cytokines IL-4 and IL-13, ALOX15B is constitutively expressed. This review aims to summarize the current knowledge on the regulation and functions of ALOX15 and ALOX15B in human macrophages.

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Author:Ryan G. Snodgrass, Bernhard BrüneORCiD
Pubmed Id:
Parent Title (English):Frontiers in pharmacology
Publisher:Frontiers Media
Place of publication:Lausanne
Contributor(s):Nils Helge Schebb
Document Type:Article
Year of Completion:2019
Date of first Publication:2019/07/04
Publishing Institution:Universitätsbibliothek Johann Christian Senckenberg
Release Date:2019/09/30
Tag:cholesterol; immunity; inflammation; lipid mediator; lipoxygenase; macrophage
Issue:Art. 719
Page Number:12
First Page:1
Last Page:12
Copyright © 2019 Snodgrass and Brüne. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.
Institutes:Medizin / Medizin
Wissenschaftliche Zentren und koordinierte Programme / Sonderforschungsbereiche / Forschungskollegs
Dewey Decimal Classification:6 Technik, Medizin, angewandte Wissenschaften / 61 Medizin und Gesundheit / 610 Medizin und Gesundheit
Licence (German):License LogoCreative Commons - Namensnennung 4.0