The multifaceted p21 (Cip1/Waf1/CDKN1A) in cell differentiation, migration and cancer therapy

  • Loss of cell cycle control is characteristic of tumorigenesis. The protein p21 is the founding member of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors and an important versatile cell cycle protein. p21 is transcriptionally controlled by p53 and p53-independent pathways. Its expression is increased in response to various intra- and extracellular stimuli to arrest the cell cycle ensuring genomic stability. Apart from its roles in cell cycle regulation including mitosis, p21 is involved in differentiation, cell migration, cytoskeletal dynamics, apoptosis, transcription, DNA repair, reprogramming of induced pluripotent stem cells, autophagy and the onset of senescence. p21 acts either as a tumor suppressor or as an oncogene depending largely on the cellular context, its subcellular localization and posttranslational modifications. In the present review, we briefly mention the general functions of p21 and summarize its roles in differentiation, migration and invasion in detail. Finally, regarding its dual role as tumor suppressor and oncogene, we highlight the potential, difficulties and risks of using p21 as a biomarker as well as a therapeutic target.

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Author:Nina-Naomi KreisORCiDGND, Frank LouwenGND, Juping Yuan
Pubmed Id:
Parent Title (English):Cancers
Place of publication:Basel
Document Type:Article
Year of Completion:2019
Date of first Publication:2019/08/21
Publishing Institution:Universit├Ątsbibliothek Johann Christian Senckenberg
Release Date:2019/10/10
Tag:CDKN1A; anti-cancer therapy; differentiation; metastasis; migration; p21
Issue:9, Art. 1220
Page Number:23
First Page:1
Last Page:23
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited
Institutes:Medizin / Medizin
Dewey Decimal Classification:6 Technik, Medizin, angewandte Wissenschaften / 61 Medizin und Gesundheit / 610 Medizin und Gesundheit
Licence (German):License LogoCreative Commons - Namensnennung 4.0