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A new region of proton-rich parent nuclei decaying by spontaneous cluster emission with a measurable branching ratio relative to alpha decay is predicted within the analytical superasymmetric fission model. After a brief presentation of the model and of the seven mass tables used to calculate the released energy, the obtained results are discussed. Measurable half-lives and branching ratios are estimated for 12C, 16O, 28Si, and other cluster radioactivities of some nuclides having proton and neutron numbers in the range Z=56–64 and N=58–72. Such nuclei far from stability could be produced in reactions induced by radioactive beams.

The components of the nuclear inertia tensor, functions of the separation distance R and of the radius of the light fragment R2, BRR(R,R2), BRR2(R,R2), and BR2R2(R,R2) are calculated within the Werner-Wheeler approximation, by using the parametrization of two intersected symmetric or asymmetric spheres. Analytical relationships are derived. When projected to a path R2=R2(R), the reduced mass is obtained at the touching point. The two one-dimensional parametrizations with R2=const, and the volume V2=const previously studied, are found to be particular cases of the present more general approach. Illustrations for the cold fission, cluster radioactivity, and α decay of 252Cf are given.

We investigate the influence of nuclear masses, radii, and interaction potentials on 12C radioactivity of 114the best representative of a new island of cluster emitters leading to daughter nuclei around the doubly magic 100Sn. Three different models are considered: one derived by Blendowske, Fliessbach, and Walliser (BFW) from the many-body theory of alpha decay, as well as our analytical (ASAF) and numerical (NuSAF) superasymmetric fission models. A Q value larger by 1 MeV or an ASAF potential barrier reduced by 3% are producing a half-life shorter by 2 orders of magnitude. A similar effect can be obtained within BFW and NuSAF by a decrease of the action integral with less than 10% and 5%, respectively. By increasing the radius constant within ASAF or BFW models by 10%, the half-life becomes shorter by 3 orders of magnitude.

The great majority of the known nuclides with Z>40, including the so-called stable nuclides, are metastable with respect to several modes of spontaneous superasymmetric splitting. A model extended from the fission theory of alpha decay allows one to estimate the lifetimes and the branching ratios relative to the alpha decay for these natural radioactivities. From a huge amount of systematic calculations it is concluded that the process should proceed with maximum intensity in the trans-lead nuclei, where the minimum lifetime is obtained from parent-emitted heavy ion combinations leading to a magic (208Pb) or almost magic daughter nucleus. More than 140 nuclides with atomic number smaller than 25 are possible candidates to be emitted from heavy nuclei, with half-lives in the range of 1010–1030 s: 5He, 8–10Be, 11,12B, 12–16C, 13–17N, 15–22O, 18–23F, 20–26Ne, 23–28Na, 23–30Mg, 27–32Al, 28–36Si, 31–39P, 32–42S, 35–45Cl, 37–47Ar, 40–49 K, 42-51. . .Ca, 44–53 Sc, 46–53Ti, 48–54V, and 49–55 Cr. The shell structure and the pairing effects are clearly manifested in these new decay modes.

By using the analytical superasymmetric fission model it is shown that all ‘‘stable’’ nuclei lighter than lead with Z>40 are metastable relative to the spontaneous emission of nuclear clusters. An even-odd effect is included in the zero point vibration energy. Half-lives in the range 1040–1050 s are obtained for Z>62. The region of metastability against these new decay modes is extended beyond that for α decay and in some cases, in the competing region, the emission rates for nuclear clusters are larger than for α decay.

The wave function of a spheroidal harmonic oscillator without spin-orbit interaction is expressed in terms of associated Laguerre and Hermite polynomials. The pairing gap and Fermi energy are found by solving the BCS system of two equations. Analytical relationships for the matrix elements of inertia are obtained function of the main quantum numbers and potential derivative. They may be used to test complex computer codes one should develop in a realistic approach of the fission dynamics. The results given for the 240 Pu nucleus are compared with a hydrodynamical model. The importance of taking into account the correction term due to the variation of the occupation number is stressed.

Potential energy surfaces are calculated by using the most advanced asymmetric two-center shell model allowing to obtain shell and pairing corrections which are added to the Yukawa-plus-exponential model deformation energy. Shell effects are of crucial importance for experimental observation of spontaneous disintegration by heavy ion emission. Results for 222Ra, 232U, 236Pu and 242Cm illustrate the main ideas and show for the first time for a cluster emitter a potential barrier obtained by using the macroscopic-microscopic method.

Complex fission phenomena
(2004)

Complex fission phenomena are studied in a unified way. Very general reflection asymmetrical equilibrium (saddle point) nuclear shapes are obtained by solving an integro-differential equation without being necessary to specify a certain parametrization. The mass asymmetry in binary cold fission of Th and U isotopes is explained as the result of adding a phenomenological shell correction to the liquid drop model deformation energy. Applications to binary, ternary, and quaternary fission are outlined.

We developed a three-center phenomenological model,able to explain qualitatively the recently obtained experimental results concerning the quasimolecular stage of a light-particle accompanied fission process. It was derived from the liquid drop model under the assumption that the aligned configuration, with the emitted particle between the light and heavy fragment, is reached by increasing continuously the separation distance, while the radii of the heavy fragment and of the light particle are kept constant. In such a way,a new minimum of a short-lived molecular state appears in the deformation energy at a separation distance very close to the touching point. This minimum allows the existence of a short-lived quasi-molecular state, decaying into the three final fragments.The influence of the shell effects is discussed. The half-lives of some quasimolecular states which could be formed in the $^{10}$Be and $^{12}$C accompanied fission of $^{252}$Cf are roughly estimated to be the order of 1 ns, and 1 ms, respectively.