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The aim of this work is to develop an effective equation of state for QCD, having the correct asymptotic degrees of freedom, to be used as input for dynamical studies of heavy ion collisions. We present an approach for modeling an EoS that respects the symmetries underlying QCD, and includes the correct asymptotic degrees of freedom, i.e. quarks and gluons at high temperature and hadrons in the low-temperature limit. We achieve this by including quarks degrees of freedom and the thermal contribution of the Polyakov loop in a hadronic chiral sigma-omega model. The hadronic part of the model is a nonlinear realization of an sigma-omega model. As the fundamental symmetries of QCD should also be present in its hadronic states such an approach is widely used to describe hadron properties below and around Tc. The quarks are introduced as thermal quasi particles, coupling to the Polyakov loop, while the dynamics of the Polyakov loop are controlled by a potential term which is fitted to reproduce pure gauge lattice data. In this model the sigma field serves a the order parameter for chiral restoration and the Polyakov loop as order parameter for deconfinement. The hadrons are suppressed at high densities by excluded volume corrections. As a next step, we introduce our new HQ model equation of state in a microscopic+macroscopic hybrid approach to heavy ion collisions. This hybrid approach is based on the Ultra-relativistic Quantum Molecular Dynamics (UrQMD) transport approach with an intermediate hydrodynamical evolution for the hot and dense stage of the collision. The present implementation allows to compare pure microscopic transport calculations with hydrodynamic calculations using exactly the same initial conditions and freeze-out procedure. The effects of the change in the underlying dynamics - ideal fluid dynamics vs. non-equilibrium transport theory - are explored. The final pion and proton multiplicities are lower in the hybrid model calculation due to the isentropic hydrodynamic expansion while the yields for strange particles are enhanced due to the local equilibrium in the hydrodynamic evolution. The elliptic and directed flow are shown to be not sensitive to changes in the EoS while the smaller mean free path in the hydrodynamic evolution reflects directly in higher flow results which are consistent with the experimental data. This finding indicates qualitatively that physical mechanisms like viscosity and other non equilibrium effects play an essentially more important role than the EoS when bulk observables like flow are investigated. In the last chapter, results for the thermal production of MEMOs in nucleus-nucleus collisions from a combined micro+macro approach are presented. Multiplicities, rapidity and transverse momentum spectra are predicted for Pb+Pb interaction at different beam energies. The presented excitation functions for various MEMO multiplicities show a clear maximum at the upper FAIR energy regime making this facility the ideal place to study the production of these exotic forms of multistrange objects.

We analyze hadrochemical freeze-out in central Pb+Pb collisions at CERN SPS and LHC energies. Employing the UrQMD hybrid transport model we study the effects of the final hadron/resonance expansion phase on the hadron multiplicities established at hadronization. The bulk meson yields freeze out directly at hadronization whereas the baryon-antibaryon sector is subject to significant alterations, due to annihilation and regeneration processes. We quantify the latter changes by survival factors for each species which are applied to modify the statistical model predictions for the data. The modified SM analysis recovers the hadronization points, which coincide with the recent lattice QCD predictions of the parton-hadron transition line at finite baryochemical potential.

Recent results on baryon production in relativistic heavy ion collisions show that a revision of the chemical freeze-out conditions is necessary. Particularly, there is evidence that chemical freezeout does not occur at full chemical equilibrium. We present a method to reconstruct original hadronization conditions and show that the newly found points in the T − µB plane are in very good agreement with extrapolations of the lattice QCD critical line.

Spinodal crumbling
(2013)

Extending a previously developed two-phase equation of state, we simulate head-on relativistic lead-lead collisions with fluid dynamics, augmented with a finite-range term, and study the effects of the phase structure on the evolution of the baryon density. For collision energies that bring the bulk of the system into the mechanically unstable spinodal region of the phase diagram, the density irregularities are being amplified significantly. We also present results for the associated clump size distribution.

The QGP that might be created in ultrarelativistic heavy-ion collisions is expected to radiate thermal dilepton radiation. However, this thermal dilepton radiation interferes with dileptons originating from hadron decays. In the invariant mass region between the f and J=y peak (1GeV <= M l+l <=. 3GeV) the most substantial background of hadron decays originates from correlated DD¯ -meson decays. We evaluate this background using a Langevin simulation for charm quarks. As background medium we utilize the well-tested UrQMD-hybrid model. The required drag and diffusion coefficients are taken from a resonance approach. The decoupling of the charm quarks from the hot medium is performed at a temperature of 130MeV and as hadronization mechanism a coalescence approach is chosen. This model for charm quark interactions with the medium has already been successfully applied to the study of the medium modification and the elliptic flow at FAIR, RHIC and LHC energies. In this proceeding we present our results for the dilepton radiation from correlated D¯D decays at RHIC energy in comparison to PHENIX measurements in the invariant mass range between 1 and 3 GeV using different interaction scenarios. These results can be utilized to estimate the thermal QGP radiation.

We discuss the effects of the final hadronic state, in ultra-relativistic nuclear collisions, on hadronic resonance properties and measurable production rates. In particular we will compare our results with recent ALICE data on resonance production. We show that the hadronic phase of the system evolution has a considerable impact on the measured resonance ratios and pT spectra. We also discuss some of the remaining uncertainties in the model and how they may be addressed in future studies.

Abstract We consider the phase structure of hadronic and hadron-quark models at finite temperature and density. The basis for the hadronic part is an extension of a flavor-SU(3) ? ? ? model. We study the effect on the phase diagram by adding additional hadronic resonances to the model. With the resulting equation of state we investigate heavy-ion c... collisions using hydrodynamical simulations. In a combined approach we include quarks and the Polyakov loop field in the calculation and study chiral symmetry restoration and the deconfinement transition.

In this talk we discuss the effects of the hadronic rescattering on final state observables in high energy nuclear collisions. We do so by employing the UrQMD transport model for a realistic description of the hadronic decoupling process. The rescattering of hadrons modifies every hadronic bulk observable. For example apparent multiplicity of resonances is suppressed as compared to a chemical equilibrium freeze-out model. Stable and unstable particles change their momentum distribution by more than 30% through rescattering. The hadronic rescattering also leads to a substantial decorrelation of the conserved charge distributions. These findings show that it is all but trivial to conclude from the final state observables on the properties of the system at an earlier time where it may have been in or close to local equilibrium.

The recent discovery of binary neutron star mergers has opened a new and exciting venue of research into hot and dense strongly interacting matter. For the first time, this elusive state of matter, described by the theory of quantum chromo dynamics, can be studied in two very different environments. On the macroscopic scale, in the collisions of neutron stars; and on the microscopic scale, in collisions of heavy ions at particle collider facilities. We will discuss the conditions that are created in these mergers and the corresponding high energy nuclear collisions. This includes the properties of quantum chromo dynamics matter, that is, the expected equation of state as well as expected chemical and thermodynamic properties of this exotic matter. To explore this matter in the laboratory, a new research prospect is available at the Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research, FAIR. The new facility is being constructed adjacent to the existing accelerator complex of the GSI Helmholtz Centre for Heavy Ion Research at Darmstadt/Germany, expanding the research goals and technical possibilities substantially. The worldwide unique accelerator and experimental facilities of FAIR will open the way for a broad spectrum of unprecedented research supplying a variety of experiments in hadron, nuclear, atomic, and plasma physics as well as biomedical and material science, which will be briefly described.

Correlations between the harmonic flow coefficients v1, v2, v3 and v4 of nucleons in semi-peripheral Au+Au collisions at a beam energy of 1.23 AGeV are investigated within the hadronic transport approach ultra-relativistic quantum molecular dynamics (UrQMD). In contrast to ultra-relativistic collision energies (where the flow coefficients are evaluated with respect to the respective event plane), we predict strong correlations between the flow harmonics with respect to the reaction plane. Based on an event-by-event selection of the midrapidity final state elliptic flow of nucleons we show that as a function of rapidity, (I) the sign of the triangular flow changes, (II) that the shape of v4 changes from convex to concave, and (III) that v3∝v1v2 and v4∝v22 for all different event classes, indicating strong correlations between all investigated harmonic flow coefficients.