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A careful investigation of different corrections to binding energies of electrons in almost critical fields is performed. We investigate quantitatively the influence of the nuclear charge parameters, nuclear mass, degree of ionization on the value of the critical charge of the nucleus. Rather qualitative arguments are given to establish the contribution of the quantumelectrodynamic corrections, which are found to be small. Some phenomenological modifications of QED are quantitatively investigated and found to be of negligible influence on the value of the critical field. For heavy ion collisions with Z1+Z2>Zcr the critical separations between ions are given as results of precise solutions of the relativistic two coulomb center problem. Corrections due to electron-electron interaction are considered. We find (with present theoretical accuracy) Zcr=173±2, in the heavy ion collisions Rcr(U-U) = 34.7±2 fm and Rcr (U-Cf)=47.7±2 fm. We shortly consider the possibility of spontaneous muon production in muonic supercritical fields.

A fully gauge-invariant, Lorentz-covariant, nonlocal, and nonlinear theory, for coupled spin-½ fields, ψ, and vector fields, A, i.e., "electrons" and "photons," is constructed. The field theory is linear in the ψ fields. The nonlinearity in the A fields arises unambiguously from the requirement of gauge invariance. The coordinates are generalized to admit hypercomplex values, i.e., they are taken to be Clifford numbers. The nonlocality is limited to the hypercomplex component of the coordinates. As the size of the nonlocality is reduced toward zero, the theory goes over into the inhomogeneous Dirac theory. The nonlocality parameter corresponds to an inverse mass and induces self-regulatory properties of the propagators. It is argued that in a gauge-invariant theory a graph-by-graph convergence is impossible in principle, but it is possible that convergence may hold for the complete solution, or for sums over classes of graphs.

The 1s bound state of superheavy atoms and molecules reaches a binding energy of -2mc2 at Z≈169. It is shown that the K shell is still localized in r space even beyond this critical proton number and that it has a width Γ (several keV large) which is a positron escape width for ionized K shells. The suggestion is made that this effect can be observed in the collision of very heavy ions (superheavy molecules) during the collision.

Strange particle abundances in small volumes of hot hadronic gas are determined in the canonical ensemble with exact strangeness and baryon number conservation. Substantial density and baryon number dependence is found. A p¯d experiment is examined and applications to p¯-nucleus annihilations are considered.

We compute the energy spectrum of photons which originate from the quark-annihilation process ss¯→γg in quark-gluon plasma. The spectrum peaks at an energy Eγmax∼2ms∼400 MeV in the rest frame of the plasma. We expect one photon from the above process in the energy range of 2ms±0.25ms per hundred quark-gluon plasmas of a size R=3 fm and a lifetime τ=6 fm/c formed in nuclear collisions.

An upper limit to the electric field strength, such as that of the nonlinear electrodynamics of Born and Infeld, leads to dramatic differences in the energy eigenvalues and wave functions of atomic electrons bound to superheavy nuclei. For example, the 1s1/2 energy level joins the lower continuum at Z=215 instead of Z=174, the value obtained when Maxwell's equations are used to determine the electric field.

In view of new high-precision experiments in atomic physics it seems necessary to reexamine nonlinear theories of electrodynamics. The precise calculation of electronic and muonic atomic energies has been used to determine the possible size of the upper limit Emax to the electric field strength, which has been assumed to be a parameter. This is opposed to Born's idea of a purely electromagnetic origin of the electron's mass which determines Emax. We find Emax≥1.7×1020 V/cm.

Within the framework of the pairing plus quadrupole interaction model and by using the technique of quasi spin formalism it is possible to determine the collective potential and kinetic energy surfaces as analytic functions of the particle number in the limit that single particle splittings are neglected. Pushing the quasi spin model in an extended version up to the 4th order in perturbation theory the stiffness and mass parameters of harmonic and anharmonic terms for Dy, Er, Yb, and Hf-isotopes have been calculated. The theoretical particle dependence of collective quantities shows a good qualitative and even quantitative agreement with experimental data and former calculations.