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We present a theoretical description of nuclear collisions which consists of a three-dimensional fluid-dynamical model, a chemical equilibrium breakup calculation for local light fragment (i.e., p, n, d, t, 3He, and 4He) production, and a final thermal evaporation of these particles. The light fragment cross sections and some properties of the heavy target residues are calculated for the asymmetric system Ne+U at 400 MeV/N. The results of the model calculations are compared with recent experimental data. Several observable signatures of the collective hydrodynamical processes are consistent with the present data. An event-by-event analysis of the flow patterns of the various clusters is proposed which can yield deeper insight into the collision dynamics.

The fluid dynamical model is used to study the reactions 20Ne+238U and 40Ar+40Ca at Elab=390 MeV/nucleon. The calculated double differential cross sections d²ð/dΩdE exhibit sidewards maxima in agreement with recent experimental data. The azimuthal dependence of the triple differential distributions, to be obtained from an event-by-event analysis of 4π; exclusive experiments, can yield deeper insight into the collision process: Jets of nuclear matter are predicted with a strongly impact-parameter-dependent thrust angle θjet(b). NUCLEAR REACTIONS Ar+Ca, Ne+U, Elab=393 MeV/nucleon, fluid dynamics with thermal breakup, double differential cross sections, azimuthal dependence of triple differential cross sections, event-by-event thrust analysis of 4π exclusive experiments.

We present an analysis of high energy heavy ion collisions at intermediate impact parameters, using a two-dimensional fluid-dynamical model including shear and bulk viscosity, heat conduction, a realistic treatment of the nuclear binding, and an analysis of the final thermal emission of free nucleons. We find large collective momentum transfer to projectile and target residues (the highly inelastic bounce-off effect) and explosion of the hot compressed shock zones formed during the impact. As the calculated azimuthal dependence of energy spectra and angular distributions of emitted nucleons depends strongly on the coefficients of viscosity and thermal conductivity, future exclusive measurements may allow for an experimental determination of these transport coefficients. The importance of 4π measurements with full azimuthal information is pointed out.

Two-particle correlation data are presented for the reaction Ar (800 MeV/ nucleon) + Pb. The experimental results are analyzed in the nuclear fluid dynamical and in a linear cascade model. We demonstrate that the collective hydrodynamical correlations dominate the measured two-particle correlation function for the heavy system studied. We discuss the transition from the early stages of the reaction which are governed by few nucleon correlations, to the later stages with their macroscopic flow which can only be reached using heavy colliding systems. The sensitivity of the correlation data on the underlying compressional dissipative processes is analyzed.

The nucleons taking part in heavy ion reaction are considered as a three-component fluid. The first and second components correspond to the nucleons of the target and the projectile, while the thermalized nucleons produced in the course of the collision belong to the third component. Making use of the Boltzmann equation, hydrodynamical equations are derived. An equation of state for anisotropic nuclear matter obtained from a field theoretical model in mean field approximation is applied in a one dimensional version of the three-component fluid model. The speed of thermalization is analyzed and compared to the results of cascade and kinetic models. NUCLEAR REACTIONS Relativistic heavy-ion reactions, hydrodynamic description.

The collision process is described by hydrodynamical equations. The escape of nucleons which do not take part in the thermal equilibrium is considered by including drain terms in these equations. The energy spectra of the escaped nucleons and of nucleons evaporated after the breakup of the fluid are compared. NUCLEAR REACTIONS Relativistic heavy ion reactions, nuclear hydrodynamics, nucleon spectra.

The final states of central Ca + Ca and Nb + Nb collisions at 400 and 1050 MeV/nucleon and at 400 and 650 MeV/nucleon, respectively, are studied with two independently developed statistical models, namely the classical microcanonical model and the quantum-statistical grand canonical model. It is shown that these models are in agreement with each other for these systems. Furthermore, it is demonstrated that there is essentially a one-to-one relationship between the observed relative abundances of the light fragments p, d, t, 3He, and α and the entropy per nucleon, for breakup temperatures greater than 30 MeV. Entropy values of 3.5–4 are deduced from high-multiplicity selected fragment yield data.

The freeze out of the expanding systems, created in relativistic heavy ion collisions, is discussed. We combine kinetic freeze out equations with Bjorken type system expansion into a unified model. The important feature of the proposed scenario is that physical freeze out is completely finished in a finite time, which can be varied from 0 (freeze out hypersurface) to infinit. The dependence of the post freeze out distribution function on the freeze out time will be studied. Model allows analytical analyses for the simplest systems such as pion gas. We shall see that the basic freeze out features, pointed out in the earlier works, are not smeared out by the expansion of the system. The entropy evolution in such a scenario is also studied.

NCQ scaling of elliptic flow is studied in a non-equilibrium hadronization and freeze-out model from ideal, deconfined and chirally symmetric Quark Gluon Plasma (QGP), to final non-interacting hadrons. In this transition the quarks gain constituent quark mass while the background Bag-field breaks up. The constituent quarks then recombine into simplified hadron states, while chemical, thermal and flow equilibrium break down. Then the resulting temperatures and flow velocities of baryons and mesons will be different. In a simplified model, we reproduce the constituent quark number scaling.