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Relying on the existing estimates for the production cross sections of mini black holes in models with large extra dimensions, we review strategies for identifying those objects at collider experiments. We further consider a possible stable final state of such black holes and discuss their characteristic signatures. Keywords: Black holes

The transverse momentum dependence of the anisotropic flow v_2 for pi, K, nucleon, Lambda, Xi and Omega is studied for Au+Au collisions at sqrt s_NN = 200 GeV within two independent string-hadron transport approaches (RQMD and UrQMD). Although both models reach only 60% of the absolute magnitude of the measured v_2, they both predict the particle type dependence of v_2, as observed by the RHIC experiments: v_2 exhibits a hadron-mass hierarchy (HMH) in the low p_T region and a number-of-constituent-quark (NCQ) dependence in the intermediate p_T region. The failure of the hadronic models to reproduce the absolute magnitude of the observed v_2 indicates that transport calculations of heavy ion collisions at RHIC must incorporate interactions among quarks and gluons in the early, hot and dense phase. The presence of an NCQ scaling in the string-hadron model results suggests that the particle-type dependencies observed in heavy-ion collisions at intermediate p_T are related to the hadronic cross sections in vacuum rather than to the hadronization process itself, as suggested by quark recombination models.

In this paper we derive a formula for the energy loss due to elastic N to N particle scattering in models with extra dimensions that are compactified on a radius R. In contrast to a previous derivation we also calculate additional terms that are suppressed by factors of frequency over compactification radius. In the limit of a large compactification radius R those terms vanish and the standard result for the non compactified case is recovered.

In the framework of the relativistic quantum molecular dynamics approach (RQMD) we investigate antideuteron (d) observables in Au+Au collisions at 10.7 AGeV. The impact parameter dependence of the formation ratios d/p2 and d/p2 is calculated. In central collisions, the antideuteron formation ratio is predicted to be two orders of magnitude lower than the deuteron formation ratio. The d yield in central Au+Au collisions is one order of magnitude lower than in Si+Al collisions. In semicentral collisions di erent configuration space distributions of p s and d s lead to a large squeeze out e ect for antideuterons, which is not predicted for the p s.

In the framework of RQMD we investigate antiproton observables in massive heavy ion collisions at AGS energies and compare to preliminary results of the E878 collaboration. We focus here on the considerable influence of the real part of an antinucleon nucleus optical potential on the ¯p momentum spectra. Pacs-numbers: 14.20 Dh, 25.70.-z

Gravitational radiation from ultra high energy cosmic rays in models with large extra dimensions
(2006)

The effects of classical gravitational radiation in models with large extra dimensions are investigated for ultra high energy cosmic rays (CRs). The cross sections are implemented into a simulation package (SENECA) for high energy hadron induced CR air showers. We predict that gravitational radiation from quasi-elastic scattering could be observed at incident CR energies above 10^9 GeV for a setting with more than two extra dimensions. It is further shown that this gravitational energy loss can alter the energy reconstruction for CR energies E_CR > 5 10^9 GeV.

Elliptic flow analysis at RHIC with the Lee-Yang Zeroes method in a relativistic transport approach
(2006)

The Lee-Yang zeroes method is applied to study elliptic flow (v_2) in Au+Au collisions at sqrt s =200 A GeV, with the UrQMD model. In this transport approach, the true event plane is known and both the nonflow effects and event-by-event v_2 fluctuations exist. Although the low resolutions prohibit the application of the method for most central and peripheral collisions, the integral and differential elliptic flow from the Lee-Yang zeroes method agrees with the exact v_2 values very well for semi-central collisions.

A mechanism for locally density-dependent dynamic parton rearrangement and fusion has been implemented into the Ultrarelativistic Quantum Molecular Dynamics (UrQMD) approach. The same mechanism has been previously built in the Quark Gluon String Model (QGSM). This rearrangement and fusion approach based on parton coalescence ideas enables the description of multi-particle interactions, namely 3 -> 3 and 3 -> 2, between (pre)hadronic states in addition to standard binary interactions. The UrQMD model (v2.3) extended by these additional processes allows to investigate implications of multi-particle interactions on the reaction dynamics of ultrarelativistic heavy ion collisions. The mechanism, its implementation and first results of this investigation are presented and discussed.

We present the current status of hybrid approaches to describe heavy ion collisions and their future challenges and perspectives. First we present a hybrid model combining a Boltzmann transport model of hadronic degrees of freedom in the initial and final state with an optional hydrodynamic evolution during the dense and hot phase. Second, we present a recent extension of the hydrodynamical model to include fluctuations near the phase transition by coupling a chiral field to the hydrodynamic evolution.