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Motivated by Gröbner basis theory for finite point configurations, we define and study the class of standard complexes associated to a matroid. Standard complexes are certain subcomplexes of the independence complex that are invariant under matroid duality. For the lexicographic term order, the standard complexes satisfy a deletion-contraction-type recurrence. We explicitly determine the lexicographic standard complexes for lattice path matroids using classical bijective combinatorics.

For an abeloid variety A over a complete algebraically closed field extension K of Qp, we construct a p-adic Corlette–Simpson correspondence, namely an equivalence between finite-dimensional continuous K-linear representations of the Tate module and a certain subcategory of the Higgs bundles on A. To do so, our central object of study is the category of vector bundles for the v-topology on the diamond associated to A. We prove that any pro-finite-étale v-vector bundle can be built from pro-finite-étale v-line bundles and unipotent v-bundles. To describe the latter, we extend the theory of universal vector extensions to the v-topology and use this to generalise a result of Brion by relating unipotent v-bundles on abeloids to representations of vector groups.

Nodular lymphocyte-predominant Hodgkin lymphoma (NLPHL) can show variable histological growth patterns and present remarkable overlap with T-cell/histiocyte-rich large B-cell lymphoma (THRLBCL). Previous studies suggest that NLPHL histological variants represent progression forms of NLPHL and THRLBCL transformation in aggressive disease. Since molecular studies of both lymphomas are limited due to the low number of tumor cells, the present study aimed to learn if a better understanding of these lymphomas is possible via detailed measurements of nuclear and cell size features in 2D and 3D sections. Whereas no significant differences were visible in 2D analyses, a slightly increased nuclear volume and a significantly enlarged cell size were noted in 3D measurements of the tumor cells of THRLBCL in comparison to typical NLPHL cases. Interestingly, not only was the size of the tumor cells increased in THRLBCL but also the nuclear volume of concomitant T cells in the reactive infiltrate when compared with typical NLPHL. Particularly CD8+ T cells had frequent contacts to tumor cells of THRLBCL. However, the nuclear volume of B cells was comparable in all cases. These results clearly demonstrate that 3D tissue analyses are superior to conventional 2D analyses of histological sections. Furthermore, the results point to a strong activation of T cells in THRLBCL, representing a cytotoxic response against the tumor cells with unclear effectiveness, resulting in enhanced swelling of the tumor cell bodies and limiting proliferative potential. Further molecular studies combining 3D tissue analyses and molecular data will help to gain profound insight into these ill-defined cellular processes.

Through the glasses of didactic reduction, we consider a (periodic) tessellation Δ of either Euclidean or hyperbolic 𝑛-space 𝑀. By a piecewise isometric rearrangement of Δ we mean the process of cutting 𝑀 along corank-1 tile-faces into finitely many convex polyhedral pieces, and rearranging the pieces to a new tight covering of the tessellation Δ. Such a rearrangement defines a permutation of the (centers of the) tiles of Δ, and we are interested in the group of 𝑃𝐼(Δ) all piecewise isometric rearrangements of Δ. In this paper, we offer (a) an illustration of piecewise isometric rearrangements in the visually attractive hyperbolic plane, (b) an explanation on how this is related to Richard Thompson's groups, (c) a section on the structure of the group pei(ℤ𝑛) of all piecewise Euclidean rearrangements of the standard cubically tessellated ℝ𝑛, and (d) results on the finiteness properties of some subgroups of pei(ℤ𝑛).

Conditional Sums-of-AM/GM-Exponentials (conditional SAGE) is a decomposition method to prove nonnegativity of a signomial or polynomial over some subset X of real space. In this article, we undertake the first structural analysis of conditional SAGE signomials for convex sets X. We introduce the X-circuits of a finite subset A⊂Rn , which generalize the simplicial circuits of the affine-linear matroid induced by A to a constrained setting. The X-circuits serve as the main tool in our analysis and exhibit particularly rich combinatorial properties for polyhedral X, in which case the set of X-circuits is comprised of one-dimensional cones of suitable polyhedral fans. The framework of X-circuits transparently reveals when an X-nonnegative conditional AM/GM-exponential can in fact be further decomposed as a sum of simpler X-nonnegative signomials. We develop a duality theory for X-circuits with connections to geometry of sets that are convex according to the geometric mean. This theory provides an optimal power cone reconstruction of conditional SAGE signomials when X is polyhedral. In conjunction with a notion of reduced X-circuits, the duality theory facilitates a characterization of the extreme rays of conditional SAGE cones. Since signomials under logarithmic variable substitutions give polynomials, our results also have implications for nonnegative polynomials and polynomial optimization.

In this article, we prove the Hodge conjecture for a desingularization of the moduli space of rank 2, semi-stable, torsion-free sheaves with fixed odd degree determinant over a very general irreducible nodal curve of genus at least 2. We also compute the algebraic Poincaré polynomial of the associated cohomology ring.

Background: The ability to approximate intra-operative hemoglobin loss with reasonable precision and linearity is prerequisite for determination of a relevant surgical outcome parameter: This information enables comparison of surgical procedures between different techniques, surgeons or hospitals, and supports anticipation of transfusion needs. Different formulas have been proposed, but none of them were validated for accuracy, precision and linearity against a cohort with precisely measured hemoglobin loss and, possibly for that reason, neither has established itself as gold standard. We sought to identify the minimal dataset needed to generate reasonably precise and accurate hemoglobin loss prediction tools and to derive and validate an estimation formula.
Methods: Routinely available clinical and laboratory data from a cohort of 401 healthy individuals with controlled hemoglobin loss between 29 and 233 g were extracted from medical charts. Supervised learning algorithms were applied to identify a minimal data set and to generate and validate a formula for calculation of hemoglobin loss.
Results: Of the classical supervised learning algorithms applied, the linear and Ridge regression models performed at least as well as the more complex models. Most straightforward to analyze and check for robustness, we proceeded with linear regression. Weight, height, sex and hemoglobin concentration before and on the morning after the intervention were sufficient to generate a formula for estimation of hemoglobin loss. The resulting model yields an outstanding R2 of 53.2% with similar precision throughout the entire range of volumes or donor sizes, thereby meaningfully outperforming previously proposed medical models.
Conclusions: The resulting formula will allow objective benchmarking of surgical blood loss, enabling informed decision making as to the need for pre-operative type-and-cross only vs. reservation of packed red cell units, depending on a patient’s anemia tolerance, and thus contributing to resource management.

The novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2), identified in China at the end of December 2019 and causing the disease COVID-19, has meanwhile led to outbreaks all over the globe with about 2.2 million confirmed cases and more than 150,000 deaths as of April 17, 2020 [37]. In view of most recent information on testing activity [32], we present here an update of our initial work [4]. In this work, mathematical models have been developed to study the spread of COVID-19 among the population in Germany and to asses the impact of non-pharmaceutical interventions. Systems of differential equations of SEIR type are extended here to account for undetected infections, as well as for stages of infections and age groups. The models are calibrated on data until April 5, data from April 6 to 14 are used for model validation. We simulate different possible strategies for the mitigation of the current outbreak, slowing down the spread of the virus and thus reducing the peak in daily diagnosed cases, the demand for hospitalization or intensive care units admissions, and eventually the number of fatalities. Our results suggest that a partial (and gradual) lifting of introduced control measures could soon be possible if accompanied by further increased testing activity, strict isolation of detected cases and reduced contact to risk groups.