## 21.60.Ev Collective models

### Refine

#### Document Type

- Article (3)

#### Language

- English (3)

#### Has Fulltext

- yes (3)

#### Is part of the Bibliography

- no (3)

#### Institute

- Physik (3)

The components of the nuclear inertia tensor, functions of the separation distance R and of the radius of the light fragment R2, BRR(R,R2), BRR2(R,R2), and BR2R2(R,R2) are calculated within the Werner-Wheeler approximation, by using the parametrization of two intersected symmetric or asymmetric spheres. Analytical relationships are derived. When projected to a path R2=R2(R), the reduced mass is obtained at the touching point. The two one-dimensional parametrizations with R2=const, and the volume V2=const previously studied, are found to be particular cases of the present more general approach. Illustrations for the cold fission, cluster radioactivity, and α decay of 252Cf are given.

By using the analytical superasymmetric fission model it is shown that all ‘‘stable’’ nuclei lighter than lead with Z>40 are metastable relative to the spontaneous emission of nuclear clusters. An even-odd effect is included in the zero point vibration energy. Half-lives in the range 1040–1050 s are obtained for Z>62. The region of metastability against these new decay modes is extended beyond that for α decay and in some cases, in the competing region, the emission rates for nuclear clusters are larger than for α decay.

The great majority of the known nuclides with Z>40, including the so-called stable nuclides, are metastable with respect to several modes of spontaneous superasymmetric splitting. A model extended from the fission theory of alpha decay allows one to estimate the lifetimes and the branching ratios relative to the alpha decay for these natural radioactivities. From a huge amount of systematic calculations it is concluded that the process should proceed with maximum intensity in the trans-lead nuclei, where the minimum lifetime is obtained from parent-emitted heavy ion combinations leading to a magic (208Pb) or almost magic daughter nucleus. More than 140 nuclides with atomic number smaller than 25 are possible candidates to be emitted from heavy nuclei, with half-lives in the range of 1010–1030 s: 5He, 8–10Be, 11,12B, 12–16C, 13–17N, 15–22O, 18–23F, 20–26Ne, 23–28Na, 23–30Mg, 27–32Al, 28–36Si, 31–39P, 32–42S, 35–45Cl, 37–47Ar, 40–49 K, 42-51. . .Ca, 44–53 Sc, 46–53Ti, 48–54V, and 49–55 Cr. The shell structure and the pairing effects are clearly manifested in these new decay modes.