## 23.70.+j Heavy-particle decay

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The experimental cold-fission yields for the system 233U(nth, f) are analyzed as function of the effective total excitation energy (TXE). The nuclear level density effect is taken into account at higher TXE, in order to benefit by the lower experimental data uncertainty as well as to avoid the quantitative account of the level densities close to fragment ground states. In this way the odd-even staggering which appears in the yields extrapolated at zero excitation energy by using the level densities, vanishes. We conclude that the cold nuclear fragmentation theory including the dynamical model describes well the experimental data.

The components of the nuclear inertia tensor, functions of the separation distance R and of the radius of the light fragment R2, BRR(R,R2), BRR2(R,R2), and BR2R2(R,R2) are calculated within the Werner-Wheeler approximation, by using the parametrization of two intersected symmetric or asymmetric spheres. Analytical relationships are derived. When projected to a path R2=R2(R), the reduced mass is obtained at the touching point. The two one-dimensional parametrizations with R2=const, and the volume V2=const previously studied, are found to be particular cases of the present more general approach. Illustrations for the cold fission, cluster radioactivity, and α decay of 252Cf are given.

A coplanar three body cluster model (two deformed fragments and an alpha particle) similar to the model used for the description of cold binary fission was employed for the description of cold (neutronless) alpha accompanied fission of 252Cf. No preformation factors were considered. The three body potential was computed with the help of a double folding potential generated by the M3Y-NN effective interaction and realistic fragment ground state deformations. From the minimum action principle, the alpha particle trajectory equations, the corresponding ternary barriers, and an approximate WKB expression for the barrier penetrability are obtained. The relative cold ternary yields were calculated as the ratio of the penetrability of a given ternary fragmentation and the sum of the penetrabilities of all possible cold ternary fragmentations. Different scenarios were considered depending on the trajectories of the fragments. It was shown that two regions of cold fragmentation exist, a deformed one corresponding to large fragment deformations and a spherical one around 132Sn, similarly to the case of the cold binary fission of 252Cf. We have shown that for the scenario corresponding to the Lagrange point, where all forces acting on the alpha particle are in equilibrium, the cold alpha ternary yields of 252Cf are strongly correlated with the cold binary yields of the daughter nucleus 248Cm into the same heavy fragments. For all other scenarios only the spherical splittings are favored. We concluded that due to the present available experimental data on cold alpha ternary yields only the Lagrange scenario could describe the cold alpha ternary fission of 252Cf.

We study the binary cold fission of 252Cf in the frame of a cluster model where the fragments are born to their respective ground states and interact via a double-folded potential with deformation effects taken into account up to multipolarity lambda=4. The preformation factors were neglected. In the case when the fragments are assumed to be spherical or with ground-state quadrupole deformation, the Q-value principle dictates the occurrence of a narrow region around the double magic 132Sn, like in the case of cluster radioactivity. When the hexadecupole deformation is turned on, an entire mass region of cold fission in the range 138–156 for the heavy fragment arise, in agreement with the experimental observations. This fact suggests that in the above-mentioned mass region, contrary to the usual cluster radioactivity where the daughter nucleus is always a neutron/proton (or both) closed shell or nearly closed shell spherical nucleus, the clusterization mechanism seems to be strongly influenced by the hexadecupole deformations rather than the Q value.

We investigate the influence of nuclear masses, radii, and interaction potentials on 12C radioactivity of 114the best representative of a new island of cluster emitters leading to daughter nuclei around the doubly magic 100Sn. Three different models are considered: one derived by Blendowske, Fliessbach, and Walliser (BFW) from the many-body theory of alpha decay, as well as our analytical (ASAF) and numerical (NuSAF) superasymmetric fission models. A Q value larger by 1 MeV or an ASAF potential barrier reduced by 3% are producing a half-life shorter by 2 orders of magnitude. A similar effect can be obtained within BFW and NuSAF by a decrease of the action integral with less than 10% and 5%, respectively. By increasing the radius constant within ASAF or BFW models by 10%, the half-life becomes shorter by 3 orders of magnitude.

A new region of proton-rich parent nuclei decaying by spontaneous cluster emission with a measurable branching ratio relative to alpha decay is predicted within the analytical superasymmetric fission model. After a brief presentation of the model and of the seven mass tables used to calculate the released energy, the obtained results are discussed. Measurable half-lives and branching ratios are estimated for 12C, 16O, 28Si, and other cluster radioactivities of some nuclides having proton and neutron numbers in the range Z=56–64 and N=58–72. Such nuclei far from stability could be produced in reactions induced by radioactive beams.

Complex fission phenomena
(2004)

Complex fission phenomena are studied in a unified way. Very general reflection asymmetrical equilibrium (saddle point) nuclear shapes are obtained by solving an integro-differential equation without being necessary to specify a certain parametrization. The mass asymmetry in binary cold fission of Th and U isotopes is explained as the result of adding a phenomenological shell correction to the liquid drop model deformation energy. Applications to binary, ternary, and quaternary fission are outlined.