## 24.10.Jv Relativistic models

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We investigate the structure of the potential energy surfaces of the superheavy nuclei 158258Fm100, 156264Hs108, 166278112, 184298114, and 172292120 within the framework of self-consistent nuclear models, i.e., the Skyrme-Hartree-Fock approach and the relativistic mean-field model. We compare results obtained with one representative parametrization of each model which is successful in describing superheavy nuclei. We find systematic changes as compared to the potential energy surfaces of heavy nuclei in the uranium region: there is no sufficiently stable fission isomer any more, the importance of triaxial configurations to lower the first barrier fades away, and asymmetric fission paths compete down to rather small deformation. Comparing the two models, it turns out that the relativistic mean-field model gives generally smaller fission barriers.

We study the extrapolation of nuclear shell structure to the region of superheavy nuclei in self-consistent mean-field models—the Skyrme-Hartree-Fock approach and the relativistic mean-field model—using a large number of parametrizations which give similar results for stable nuclei but differ in detail. Results obtained with the folded-Yukawa potential which is widely used in macroscopic-macroscopic models are shown for comparison. We focus on differences in the isospin dependence of the spin-orbit interaction and the effective mass between the models and their influence on single-particle spectra. The predictive power of the mean-field models concerning single-particle spectra is discussed for the examples of 208Pb and the spin-orbit splittings of selected neutron and proton levels in 16O, 132Sn, and 208Pb. While all relativistic models give a reasonable description of spin-orbit splittings, all Skyrme interactions show a wrong trend with mass number. The spin-orbit splitting of heavy nuclei might be overestimated by 40%–80%, which exposes a fundamental deficiency of the current nonrelativistic models. In most cases the occurrence of spherical shell closures is found to be nucleon-number dependent. Spherical doubly magic superheavy nuclei are found at 184298114, 172292120, or 184310126 depending on the parametrization. The Z=114 proton shell closure, which is related to a large spin-orbit splitting of proton 2f states, is predicted only by forces which by far overestimate the proton spin-orbit splitting in 208Pb. The Z=120 and N=172 shell closures predicted by the relativistic models and some Skyrme interactions are found to be related to a central depression of the nuclear density distribution. This effect cannot appear in macroscopic-microscopic models or semiclassical approaches like the extended Thomas-Fermi-Strutinski integral approach which have a limited freedom for the density distribution only. In summary, our findings give a strong argument for 172292120 to be the next spherical doubly magic superheavy nucleus.

This work is dedicated to the investigation of nuclear matter at non-zero temperatures within an effective hadronic model based on the Walecka model. It includes fermions as well as a vector omega meson and a scalar sigma meson where for the latter a quartic self-interaction has been considered. The coupling constants have been adapted to the saturation properties of infinite nuclear matter. A set of self-consistent Schwinger-Dyson equations has been set up for all included particles within the Cornwall-Jackiw-Tomboulis formalism. This has been expanded to non-zero temperatures via the imaginary time formalism. Beside tree-level two different stages of approximations have been considered: the Hartree approximation which takes into account the double-bubble diagram for the scalar meson, and an improved approximation where in addition two-particle irreducible sunset diagrams for all fields were included. In the Hartree-approximation the Schwinger-Dyson equations can be solved by quasi-particle ansaetze, while in the improved approximation spectral functions with non-zero widths have to be introduced. The Schwinger-Dyson equations are solved by the fully dressed propagators. Comparing the two levels of approximation shows the influence of finite widths on the temperature dependence of the particle properties. The consideration of finite widths in fact has a significant influence on the transition from a phase of heavy nucleons to a transition of light nucleons, observed in the Walecka-model. The temperature dependence is weakend when finte widths are taken into account.