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Child maltreatment remains a major health threat globally that requires the understanding of socioeconomic and cultural contexts to craft effective interventions. However, little is known about research agendas globally and the development of knowledge-producing networks in this field of study. This study aims to explore the bibliometric overview on child maltreatment publications to understand their growth from 1916 to 2018. Data from the Web of Science Core Collection were collected in May 2018. Only research articles and reviews written in the English language were included, with no restrictions by publication date. We analyzed publication years, number of papers, journals, authors, keywords and countries, and presented the countries collaboration and co-occurrence keywords analysis. From 1916 to 2018, 47,090 papers (53.0% in 2010–2018) were published in 9442 journals. Child Abuse & Neglect (2576 papers; 5.5%); Children and Youth Services Review (1130 papers; 2.4%) and Pediatrics (793 papers, 1.7%) published the most papers. The most common research areas were Psychology (16,049 papers, 34.1%), Family Studies (8225 papers, 17.5%), and Social Work (7367 papers, 15.6%). Among 192 countries with research publications, the most prolific countries were the United States (26,367 papers), England (4676 papers), Canada (3282 papers) and Australia (2664 papers). We identified 17 authors who had more than 60 scientific items. The most cited papers (with at least 600 citations) were published in 29 journals, headed by the Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA) (7 papers) and the Lancet (5 papers). This overview of global research in child maltreatment indicated an increasing trend in this topic, with the world’s leading centers located in the Western countries led by the United States. We called for interdisciplinary research approaches to evaluating and intervening on child maltreatment, with a focus on low-middle income countries (LMICs) settings and specific contexts.

Effective three-dimensional Polyakov loop theories derived from QCD by strong coupling and hopping expansions are valid for heavy quarks and can also be applied to finite chemical potential μ, due to their considerably milder sign problem. We apply the Monte-Carlo method to the Nf=1,2 effective theories up to O(κ4) in the hopping parameter at μ=0 to determine the critical quark mass, at which the first-order deconfinement phase transition terminates. The critical end point obtained from the effective theory to order O(κ2) agrees well with 4-dimensional QCD simulations with a hopping expanded determinant by the WHOT-QCD collaboration. We also compare with full QCD simulations and thus obtain a measure for the validity of both the strong coupling and the hopping expansion in this regime.

We discuss aspects of the phase structure of a three-dimensional effective lattice theory of Polyakov loops derived from QCD by strong coupling and hopping parameter expansions. The theory is valid for the thermodynamics of heavy quarks where it shows all qualitative features of nuclear physics emerging from QCD. In particular, the SU(3) pure gauge effective theory also exhibits a first-order thermal deconfinement transition due to spontaneous breaking of its global Z₃ center symmetry. The presence of heavy dynamical quarks breaks this symmetry explicitly and consequently, the transition weakens with decreasing quark mass until it disappears at a critical endpoint. At non-zero baryon density, the effective theory can be evaluated either analytically by the so-called high-temperature expansion which does not suffer from the sign problem, or numerically by standard Monte-Carlo methods due to its mild sign problem. The first part of this work devotes to a systematic derivation of the effective theory up to the 6th order in the hopping parameter κ. This method combined with the SU(3) link update algorithm provides a way to simulate the O(κ⁶) effective theory. The second part involves a study of the deconfinement transition of the pure gauge effective theory, with and without static quarks, at all chemical potentials with help of the high-temperature expansion. Our estimate of the deconfinement transition and its critical endpoint as a function of quark mass and all chemical potentials agrees well with recent Monte-Carlo simulations. In the third part, we investigate the N ſ ∈ {1,2} effective theory with zero chemical potential up to O(κ⁴). We determine the location of the critical hopping parameter at which the first-order deconfinement phase transition terminates and changes to a crossover. Our results for the critical endpoint of the O(κ²) effective theory are in excellent agreement with the determinations from simulations of four-dimensional QCD with a hopping expanded determinant by the WHOT-QCD collaboration. For the O(κ⁴) effective theory, our estimate suggests that the critical quark mass increases as the order of κ-contributions increases. We also compare with full lattice QCD with N ſ = 2 degenerate standard Wilson fermions and thus obtain a measure for the validity of both the strong coupling and the hopping expansion in this regime.

The SU(3) spin model with chemical potential corresponds to a simplified version of QCD with static quarks in the strong coupling regime. It has been studied previously as a testing ground for new methods aiming to overcome the sign problem of lattice QCD. In this work we show that the equation of state and the phase structure of the model can be fully determined to reasonable accuracy by a linked cluster expansion. In particular, we compute the free energy to 14-th order in the nearest neighbour coupling. The resulting predictions for the equation of state and the location of the critical end points agree with numerical determinations to O(1%) and O(10%), respectively. While the accuracy for the critical couplings is still limited at the current series depth, the approach is equally applicable at zero and non-zero imaginary or real chemical potential, as well as to effective QCD Hamiltonians obtained by strong coupling and hopping expansions.