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Background: Autism spectrum disorder (“autism”) is a highly heterogeneous neurodevelopmental condition with few effective treatments for core and associated features. To make progress we need to both identify and validate neural markers that help to parse heterogeneity to tailor therapies to specific neurobiological profiles. Atypical hemispheric lateralization is a stable feature across studies in autism, but its potential as a neural stratification marker has not been widely examined. Methods: In order to dissect heterogeneity in lateralization in autism, we used the large EU-AIMS (European Autism Interventions—A Multicentre Study for Developing New Medications) Longitudinal European Autism Project dataset comprising 352 individuals with autism and 233 neurotypical control subjects as well as a replication dataset from ABIDE (Autism Brain Imaging Data Exchange) (513 individuals with autism, 691 neurotypical subjects) using a promising approach that moves beyond mean group comparisons. We derived gray matter voxelwise laterality values for each subject and modeled individual deviations from the normative pattern of brain laterality across age using normative modeling. Results: Individuals with autism had highly individualized patterns of both extreme right- and leftward deviations, particularly in language, motor, and visuospatial regions, associated with symptom severity. Language delay explained most variance in extreme rightward patterns, whereas core autism symptom severity explained most variance in extreme leftward patterns. Follow-up analyses showed that a stepwise pattern emerged, with individuals with autism with language delay showing more pronounced rightward deviations than individuals with autism without language delay. Conclusions: Our analyses corroborate the need for novel (dimensional) approaches to delineate the heterogeneous neuroanatomy in autism and indicate that atypical lateralization may constitute a neurophenotype for clinically meaningful stratification in autism.

The ability to permeate accross the blood brain barrier (BBB) is essential for drugs acting on the central nervous system (CNS). Thus, systems that allow rapid and inexpensive screening of the BBB-permeability properties of novel lead compounds are of great importance for speeding up the drug discovery process in the CNS-area. We used immortalized porcine brain microvessel endothelial cells (PBMECICl-2) to develop a model for measurement of blood-brain barrier permeation of CNS active drugs. Investigation of different cell culture conditions showed, that a system using C6 astrocyte glioma conditioned medium and addition of a cyclic AMP analog in combination with a type IV phosphodiesterase inhibitor (R020-1724) leads to cell layers with transendothelial electrical resistance values up to 300 Ω.cm2. Permeability studies with U-[14C]sucroseg ave a permeability coefficient Pe of 3.24 + 0.14 × 10−4 cm/min, which is in good agreement to published values and thus indicates the formation of tight junctions in vitro.

We present the first holographic simulations of non-equilibrium steady state formation in strongly coupled N=4 SYM theory in 3+1 dimensions. We initially join together two thermal baths at different temperatures and chemical potentials and compare the subsequent evolution of the combined system to analytic solutions of the corresponding Riemann problem and to numeric solutions of ideal and viscous hydrodynamics. The time evolution of the energy density that we obtain holographically is consistent with the combination of a shock and a rarefaction wave: A shock wave moves towards the cold bath, and a smooth broadening wave towards the hot bath. Between the two waves emerges a steady state with constant temperature and flow velocity, both of which are accurately described by a shock+rarefaction wave solution of the Riemann problem. In the steady state region, a smooth crossover develops between two regions of different charge density. This is reminiscent of a contact discontinuity in the Riemann problem. We also obtain results for the entanglement entropy of regions crossed by shock and rarefaction waves and find both of them to closely follow the evolution of the energy density.

Bericht der Arbeitsgruppe Technik zur Vorbereitung des Programms "Retrospektive Digitalisierung von Bibliotheksbeständen" im Förderbereich "Verteilte Digitale Forschungsbibliothek" Arbeitssitzungen am 14. Mai 1996 (Frankfurt a. M.), 29.-30. Juli 1996 (München), 12.-13. Dezember 1996 (Göttingen) Mitglieder der Arbeitsgruppe: Prof. Dr. Rudolf Bayer, Technische Universität München, Fakultät für Informatik Dr. Jürgen Bunzel, Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft, Bonn Dr. Marianne Dörr, Bayerische Staatsbibliothek München Dr. Reinhard Ecker, Beilstein-Institut bzw. ABC Datenservice GmbH, Frankfurt/Main Dipl.-Math. Heinz-Werner Hoffmann, Hochschulbibliothekszentrum NRW, Köln (als Gast für die AG der Verbundsysteme) Dr. Norbert Lossau, Niedersächsische Staats- und Universitätsbibliothek Göttingen (DFG-Projekt ‘Verteilte Digitale Forschungsbibliothek’) Prof. Dr. Elmar Mittler, Niedersächsische Staats- und Universitätsbibliothek Göttingen Dipl.-Inf. Christian Mönch, FB Informatik der J.W. Goethe-Universität Frankfurt Dr. Wilhelm R. Schmidt, Stadt- und Universitätsbibliothek Frankfurt Dr. Hartmut Weber, Landesarchivdirektion, Stuttgart

Using more than a million randomly generated equations of state that satisfy theoretical and observational constraints, we construct a novel, scale-independent description of the sound speed in neutron stars, where the latter is expressed in a unit cube spanning the normalized radius, r/R, and the mass normalized to the maximum one, M/MTOV. From this generic representation, a number of interesting and surprising results can be deduced. In particular, we find that light (heavy) stars have stiff (soft) cores and soft (stiff) outer layers, or that the maximum of the sound speed is located at the center of light stars but moves to the outer layers for stars with M/MTOV ≳ 0.7, reaching a constant value of cs = 1 2 2 as M → MTOV. We also show that the sound speed decreases below the conformal limit cs = 1 3 2 at the center of stars with M = MTOV. Finally, we construct an analytic expression that accurately describes the radial dependence of the sound speed as a function of the neutron-star mass, thus providing an estimate of the maximum sound speed expected in a neutron star.

A considerable effort has been dedicated recently to the construction of generic equations of state (EOSs) for matter in neutron stars. The advantage of these approaches is that they can provide model-independent information on the interior structure and global properties of neutron stars. Making use of more than 106 generic EOSs, we asses the validity of quasi-universal relations of neutron star properties for a broad range of rotation rates, from slow-rotation up to the mass-shedding limit. In this way, we are able to determine with unprecedented accuracy the quasi-universal maximum-mass ratio between rotating and nonrotating stars and reveal the existence of a new relation for the surface oblateness, i.e., the ratio between the polar and equatorial proper radii. We discuss the impact that our findings have on the imminent detection of new binary neutron-star mergers and how they can be used to set new and more stringent limits on the maximum mass of nonrotating neutron stars, as well as to improve the modelling of the X-ray emission from the surface of rotating stars.

Using full 3+1 dimensional general-relativistic hydrodynamic simulations of equal- and unequal-mass neutron-star binaries with properties that are consistent with those inferred from the inspiral of GW170817, we perform a detailed study of the quark-formation processes that could take place after merger. We use three equations of state consistent with current pulsar observations derived from a novel finite-temperature framework based on V-QCD, a non-perturbative gauge/gravity model for Quantum Chromodynamics. In this way, we identify three different post-merger stages at which mixed baryonic and quark matter, as well as pure quark matter, are generated. A phase transition triggered collapse already ≲ 10 ms after the merger reveals that the softest version of our equations of state is actually inconsistent with the expected second-long post-merger lifetime of GW170817. Our results underline the impact that gravitational wave observations of binary neutron-star mergers can have in constraining the equation of state of nuclear matter, especially in its most extreme regimes.

Using full 3+1 dimensional general-relativistic hydrodynamic simulations of equal- and unequal-mass neutron-star binaries with properties that are consistent with those inferred from the inspiral of GW170817, we perform a detailed study of the quark-formation processes that could take place after merger. We use three equations of state consistent with current pulsar observations derived from a novel finite-temperature framework based on V-QCD, a non-perturbative gauge/gravity model for Quantum Chromodynamics. In this way, we identify three different post-merger stages at which mixed baryonic and quark matter, as well as pure quark matter, are generated. A phase transition triggered collapse already ≲10ms after the merger reveals that the softest version of our equations of state is actually inconsistent with the expected second-long post-merger lifetime of GW170817. Our results underline the impact that multi-messenger observations of binary neutron-star mergers can have in constraining the equation of state of nuclear matter, especially in its most extreme regimes.

We use the quantum null energy condition in strongly coupled two-dimensional field theories (QNEC2) as diagnostic tool to study a variety of phase structures, including crossover, second and first order phase transitions. We find a universal QNEC2 constraint for first order phase transitions with kinked entanglement entropy and discuss in general the relation between the QNEC2-inequality and monotonicity of the Casini-Huerta c-function. We then focus on a specific example, the holographic dual of which is modelled by three-dimensional Einstein gravity plus a massive scalar field with one free parameter in the self-interaction potential. We study translation invariant stationary states dual to domain walls and black branes. Depending on the value of the free parameter we find crossover, second and first order phase transitions between such states, and the c-function either flows to zero or to a finite value in the infrared. Strikingly, evaluating QNEC2 for ground state solutions allows to predict the existence of phase transitions at finite temperature.