### Refine

#### Language

- English (3)

#### Has Fulltext

- yes (3)

#### Is part of the Bibliography

- no (3)

#### Keywords

#### Institute

- Informatik (3)

We investigate the impact of non-Hermiticity on the thermodynamic properties of interacting fermions by examining bilinear extensions to the 3+1 dimensional SU(2)-symmetric Nambu--Jona-Lasinio (NJL) model of quantum chromodynamics at finite temperature and chemical potential. The system is modified through the anti-PT-symmetric pseudoscalar bilinear ψ¯γ5ψ and the PT-symmetric pseudovector bilinear iBνψ¯γ5γνψ, introduced with a coupling g. Beyond the possibility of dynamical fermion mass generation at finite temperature and chemical potential, our findings establish model-dependent changes in the position of the chiral phase transition and the critical end-point. These are tunable with respect to g in the former case, and both g and |B|/B0 in the latter case, for both lightlike and spacelike fields. Moreover, the behavior of the quark number, entropy, pressure, and energy densities signal a potential fermion or antifermion excess compared to the standard NJL model, due to the pseudoscalar and pseudovector extension respectively. In both cases regions with negative interaction measure I=ϵ−3p are found. Future indications of such behaviors in strongly interacting fermion systems, for example in the context of neutron star physics, may point toward the presence of non-Hermitian contributions. These trends provide a first indication of curious potential mechanisms for producing non-Hermitian baryon asymmetry. In addition, the formalism described in this study is expected to apply more generally to other Hamiltonians with four-fermion interactions and thus the effects of the non-Hermitian bilinears are likely to be generic.

We investigate the impact of non-Hermiticity on the thermodynamic properties of interacting fermions by examining bilinear extensions to the 3+1 dimensional SU(2)-symmetric Nambu--Jona-Lasinio (NJL) model of quantum chromodynamics at finite temperature and chemical potential. The system is modified through the anti-PT-symmetric pseudoscalar bilinear ψ¯γ5ψ and the PT-symmetric pseudovector bilinear iBνψ¯γ5γνψ, introduced with a coupling g. Beyond the possibility of dynamical fermion mass generation at finite temperature and chemical potential, our findings establish model-dependent changes in the position of the chiral phase transition and the critical end-point. These are tunable with respect to g in the former case, and both g and |B|/B0 in the latter case, for both lightlike and spacelike fields. Moreover, the behavior of the quark number, entropy, pressure and energy densities signal a potential fermion or antifermion excess compared to the standard NJL model, due to the pseudoscalar and pseudovector extension respectively. In both cases regions with negative interaction measure I=ϵ−3p are found. Future indications of such behaviors in strongly interacting fermion systems, for example in the context of neutron star physics, may point toward the presence of non-Hermitian contributions. These trends provide a first indication of curious potential mechanisms for producing non-Hermitian baryon asymmetry. In addition, the formalism described in this study is expected to apply more generally to other Hamiltonians with four-fermion interactions and thus the effects of the non-Hermitian bilinears are likely to be generic.