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We use a set of hadronic equations of state derived from covariant density functional theory to study the impact of their high-density behavior on the properties of rapidly rotating Δ-resonance-admixed hyperonic compact stars. In particular, we explore systematically the effects of variations of the bulk energy isoscalar skewness, Qsat, and the symmetry energy slope, Lsym, on the masses of rapidly rotating compact stars. With models for equation of state satisfying all the modern astrophysical constraints, excessively large gravitational masses of around 2.5M⊙ are only obtained under three conditions: (a) strongly attractive Δ-resonance potential in nuclear matter, (b) maximally fast (Keplerian) rotation, and (c) parameter ranges Qsat≳500 MeV and Lsym≲50 MeV. These values of Qsat and Lsym have a rather small overlap with a large sample (total of about 260) parametrizations of covariant nucleonic density functionals. The extreme nature of requirements (a)-(c) reinforces the theoretical expectation that the secondary object involved in the GW190814 event is likely to be a low-mass black hole rather than a supramassive neutron star.

We construct a set of hyperonic equations of state (EoS) by assuming SU(3) symmetry within the baryon octet and by using a covariant density functional (CDF) theory approach. The low-density regions of our EoS are constrained by terrestrial experiments, while the high-density regime is modeled by systematically varying the nuclear matter skewness coefficient Qsat and the symmetry energy slope Lsym. The sensitivity of the EoS predictions is explored in terms of z parameter of the SU(3) symmetric model that modifies the meson-hyperon coupling constants away from their SU(6) symmetric values. Our results show that model EoS based on our approach can support static Tolman-Oppenheimer-Volkof (TOV) masses in the range 2.3-2.5M⊙ in the large-Qsat and small-z regime, however, such stars contain only a trace amount of hyperons compared to SU(6) models. We also construct uniformly rotating Keplerian configurations for our model EoS for which the masses of stellar sequences may reach up to 3.0M⊙. These results are used to explore the systematic dependence of the ratio of maximum masses of rotating and static stars, the lower bound on the rotational frequency of the models that will allow secondary masses in the gravitational waves events to be compact stars with M2≲3.0M⊙ and the strangeness fraction on the model parameters. We conclude that very massive stellar models can be, in principle, constructed within the SU(3) symmetric model, however, they are nucleonic-like as their strangeness fraction drops below 3%.

Driven by the loss of energy, isolated rotating neutron stars (pulsars) are gradually slowing down to lower frequencies, which increases the tremendous compression of the matter inside of them. This increase in compression changes both the global properties of rotating neutron stars as well as their hadronic core compositions. Both effects may register themselves observationally in the thermal evolution of such stars, as demonstrated in this Letter. The rotation-driven particle process which we consider here is the direct Urca (DU) process, which is known to become operative in neutron stars if the number of protons in the stellar core exceeds a critical limit of around 11% to 15%. We find that neutron stars spinning down from moderately high rotation rates of a few hundred Hertz may be creating just the right conditions where the DU process becomes operative, leading to an observable effect (enhanced cooling) in the temperature evolution of such neutron stars. As it turns out, the rotation-driven DU process could explain the unusual temperature evolution observed for the neutron star in Cas A, provided the mass of this neutron star lies in the range of 1.5 to 1.9M⊙ and its rotational frequency at birth was between 40 (400 Hz) and 70% (800 Hz) of the Kepler (mass shedding) frequency, respectively.

The Δ-isobar degrees of freedom are included in the covariant density functional (CDF) theory to study the equation of state (EoS) and composition of dense matter in compact stars. In addition to Δ's we include the full octet of baryons, which allows us to study the interplay between the onset of delta isobars and hyperonic degrees of freedom. Using both the Hartree and Hartree–Fock approximation we find that Δ's appear already at densities slightly above the saturation density of nuclear matter for a wide range of the meson–Δ coupling constants. This delays the appearance of hyperons and significantly affects the gross properties of compact stars. Specifically, Δ's soften the EoS at low densities but stiffen it at high densities. This softening reduces the radius of a canonical 1.4M⊙ star by up to 2 km for a reasonably attractive Δ potential in matter, while the stiffening results in larger maximum masses of compact stars. We conclude that the hypernuclear CDF parametrizations that satisfy the 2M⊙ maximum mass constraint remain valid when Δ isobars are included, with the important consequence that the resulting stellar radii are shifted toward lower values, which is in agreement with the analysis of neutron star radii.