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In recent years, Hagedorn states have been used to explain the equilibrium and transport properties of a hadron gas close to the QCD critical temperature. These massive resonances are shown to lower h/s to near the AdS/CFT limit close to the phase transition. A comparison of the Hagedorn model to recent lattice results is made and it is found that the hadrons can reach chemical equilibrium almost immediately, well before the chemical freeze-out temperatures found in thermal fits for a hadron gas without Hagedorn states.

We compare away-side hadron correlations with respect to tagged heavy quark jets computed within a weakly coupled pQCD and a strongly coupled AdS/CFT model. While both models feature similar far zone Mach and diffusion wakes, the far zone stress features are shown to be too weak to survive thermal broadening at hadron freeze-out. Observable away-side conical correlations are dominated by the jet-induced transverse flow in near zone “Neck” region, which differs significantly for both models. Unlike in AdS/CFT, the induced transverse flow in the Neck zone is too weak in pQCD to produce conical correlations after Cooper-Frye freeze-out. The observation of conical correlations violating Mach’s law would favor the strongly-coupled AdS/CFT string drag dynamics, while their absence would favor weakly-coupled pQCD-based hydrodynamics.

We demonstrate that a Quark–Gluon Plasma (QGP) with a dilute admixture of heavy quarks has, in general, a lower speed of sound than a “pure” QGP without effects from heavy flavors. The change in the speed of sound is sensitive to the details of the theory, making the hydrodynamic response to “flavoring” a sensitive probe of the underlying microscopic dynamics. We suggest that this effect may be measured in ultrarelativistic heavy ion collisions by relating the event-by-event number of charm quarks to flow observables such as the average transverse momentum.

We study issues of duality in 3D field theory models over a canonical noncommutative spacetime and obtain the noncommutative extension of the self-dual model induced by the Seiberg–Witten map. We apply the dual projection technique to uncover some properties of the noncommutative Maxwell–Chern–Simons theory up to first-order in the noncommutative parameter. A duality between this theory and a model similar to the ordinary self-dual model is established. The correspondence of the basic fields is obtained and the equivalence of algebras and equations of motion are directly verified. We also comment on previous results in this subject.

In this thesis we investigate the role played by gauge fields in providing new observable signatures that can attest to the presence of color superconductivity in neutron stars. We show that thermal gluon fluctuations in color-flavor locked superconductors can substantially increase their critical temperature and also change the order of the transition, which becomes a strong first-order phase transition. Moreover, we explore the effects of strong magnetic fields on the properties of color-flavor locked superconducting matter. We find that both the energy gaps as well as the magnetization are oscillating functions of the magnetic field. Also, it is shown that the magnetization can be so strong that homogeneous quark matter becomes metastable for a range of parameters. This points towards the existence of magnetic domains or other types of magnetic inhomogeneities in the hypothesized quark cores of magnetars. Obviously, our results only apply if the strong magnetic fields observed on the surface of magnetars can be transmitted to their inner core. This can occur if the superconducting protons expected to exist in the outer core form a type-I I superconductor. However, it has been argued that the observed long periodic oscillations in isolated pulsars can only be explained if the outer core is a type-I superconductor rather than type-I I. We show that this is not the only solution for the precession puzzle by demonstrating that the long-term variation in the spin of PSR 1828-11 can be explained in terms of Tkachenko oscillations within superfluid shells.

The relativistic method of moments is one of the most successful approaches to extract second order viscous hydrodynamics from a kinetic underlying background. The equations can be systematically improved to higher order, and they have already shown a fast convergence to the kinetic results. In order to generalize the method we introduced long range effects in the form of effective (medium dependent) masses and gauge (coherent) fields. The most straightforward generalization of the hydrodynamic expansion is problematic at higher order. Instead of introducing an additional set of approximations, we propose to rewrite the series in terms of moments resumming the contributions of infinite non-hydrodynamics modes. The resulting equations are are consistent with hydrodynamics and well defined at all order. We tested the new approximation against the exact solutions of the Maxwell-Boltzmann-Vlasov equations in (0 + 1)-dimensions, finding a fast and stable convergence to the exact results.