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We address the modification of open heavy-flavor mesons in a hot medium of light mesons within an effective theory approach consistent with chiral and heavy-quark spin-flavor symmetries and the use of the imaginarytime formalism to introduce the non-zero temperature effects to the theory. The unitarized scattering amplitudes, the ground-state self-energies and the corresponding spectral functions are calculated self-consistently. We use the thermal ground-state spectral functions obtained with this methodology to further calculate 1) open-charm meson Euclidean correlators, and 2) off-shell transport coefficients in the hadronic phase.

We study D and DS mesons at finite temperature using an effective field theory based on chiral and heavy-quark spin-flavor symmetries within the imaginary-time formalism. Interactions with the light degrees of freedom are unitarized via a Bethe-Salpeter approach, and the D and self-energies are calculated self-consistently. We generate dynamically the e D∗0(2300)and Ds(2317)state, and study their possible identification as the chiral We study Dand Dsmesons at finite temperature using an effective field theory based on chiral and heavy-quark spin-flavor symmetries within the imaginary-time formalism. Interactions with the light degrees of freedom are unitarized via a Bethe-Salpeter approach, and the Dand Dsself-energies are calculated self-consistently. We generate dynamically the D∗0(2300)and Ds(2317)states, and study their possible identification as the chiral partners of the Dand Dsground states, respectively. We show the evolution of their masses and decay widths as functions of temperature, and provide an analysis of the chiral-symmetry restoration in the heavy-flavor sector below the transition temperature. In particular, we analyse the very special case of the D-meson, for which the chiral partner is associated to the double-pole structure of the D∗0(2300).

Motivated by a recent finding of an exact solution of the relativistic Boltzmann equation in a Friedmann–Robertson–Walker spacetime, we implement this metric into the newly developed transport approach Simulating Many Accelerated Strongly-interacting Hadrons (SMASH). We study the numerical solution of the transport equation and compare it to this exact solution for massless particles. We also compare a different initial condition, for which the transport equation can be independently solved numerically. Very nice agreement is observed in both cases. Having passed these checks for the SMASH code, we study a gas of massive particles within the same spacetime, where the particle decoupling is forced by the Hubble expansion. In this simple scenario we present an analysis of the freeze-out times, as function of the masses and cross sections of the particles. The results might be of interest for their potential application to relativistic heavy-ion collisions, for the characterization of the freeze-out process in terms of hadron properties.

We investigate the long-standing question of the effect of proton-antiproton annihilation on the (anti-)proton yield, while respecting detailed balance for the five-body back-reaction for the first time in a full microscopic description of the late stages of heavy-ion collisions. This is achieved by employing a stochastic collision criterion in a hadronic transport approach (SMASH), which is used to account for the regeneration of (anti-)protons via 5π→p¯p. We investigate Au+Au and Pb+Pb collisions from √sNN=17.3GeV−5.02 TeV in a viscous hybrid approach. Our results show that back-reactions happen for a fraction of 15%–20% of all annihilations, independent of the beam energy or centrality of the system. The inclusion of the back-reaction results in the regeneration of half of the (anti-)proton yield lost to annihilations at midrapidity. We also find that, concerning the multiplicities, treating the back-reaction as a chain of two-body reactions is equivalent to a single 5-to-2 reaction.

We describe two independent frameworks which provide unambiguous determinations of the deconfinement and the decoupling conditions of a relativistic gas at finite temperature. First, we use the Polyakov-Nambu-Jona–Lasinio model to compute meson and baryon masses at finite temperature and determine their melting temperature as a function of their strangeness content. Second, we analyze a simple expanding gas within a Friedmann-Robertson-Walker metric, which admits a well-defined decoupling mechanism. We examine the decoupling time as a function of the particle mass and cross section. We find evidences of an inherent dependence of the hadronization and freeze-out conditions on flavor, and on mass and cross section, respectively.

We present a study of the elliptic flow and RAA of D and D¯ mesons in Au+Au collisions at FAIR energies. We propagate the charm quarks and the D mesons following a previously applied Langevin dynamics. The evolution of the background medium is modeled in two different ways: (I) we use the UrQMD hydrodynamics + Boltzmann transport hybrid approach including a phase transition to QGP and (II) with the coarse-graining approach employing also an equation of state with QGP. The latter approach has previously been used to describe di-lepton data at various energies very successfully. This comparison allows us to explore the effects of partial thermalization and viscous effects on the charm propagation. We explore the centrality dependencies of the collisions, the variation of the decoupling temperature and various hadronization parameters. We find that the initial partonic phase is responsible for the creation of most of the D/D¯ mesons elliptic flow and that the subsequent hadronic interactions seem to play only a minor role. This indicates that D/D¯ mesons elliptic flow is a smoking gun for a partonic phase at FAIR energies. However, the results suggest that the magnitude and the details of the elliptic flow strongly depend on the dynamics of the medium and on the hadronization procedure, which is related to the medium properties as well. Therefore, even at FAIR energies the charm quark might constitute a very useful tool to probe the quark–gluon plasma and investigate its physics.

Chiral symmetry represents a fundamental concept lying at the core of particle and nuclear physics. Its spontaneous breaking in vacuum can be exploited to distinguish chiral hadronic partners, whose masses differ. In fact, the features of this breaking serve as guiding principles for the construction of effective approaches of QCD at low energies, e.g., the chiral perturbation theory, the linear sigma model, the (Polyakov)–Nambu–Jona-Lasinio model, etc. At high temperatures/densities chiral symmetry can be restored bringing the chiral partners to be nearly degenerated in mass. At vanishing baryochemical potential, such restoration follows a smooth transition, and the chiral companions reach this degeneration above the transition temperature. In this work I review how different realizations of chiral partner degeneracy arise in different effective theories/models of QCD. I distinguish the cases where the chiral states are either fundamental degrees of freedom or (dynamically-generated) composed states. In particular, I discuss the intriguing case in which chiral symmetry restoration involves more than two chiral partners, recently addressed in the literature.