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- Gross-Neveu model (4)
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We continue previous investigations of the (inhomogeneous) phase structure of the Gross-Neveu model in a noninteger number of spatial dimensions (1≤d<3) in the limit of an infinite number of fermion species (N→∞) at (non)zero chemical potential μ. In this work, we extend the analysis from zero to nonzero temperature T.
The phase diagram of the Gross-Neveu model in 1≤d<3 spatial dimensions is well known under the assumption of spatially homogeneous condensation with both a symmetry broken and a symmetric phase present for all spatial dimensions. In d=1 one additionally finds an inhomogeneous phase, where the order parameter, the condensate, is varying in space. Similarly, phases of spatially varying condensates are also found in the Gross-Neveu model in d=2 and d=3, as long as the theory is not fully renormalized, i.e., in the presence of a regulator. For d=2, one observes that the inhomogeneous phase vanishes, when the regulator is properly removed (which is not possible for d=3 without introducing additional parameters).
In the present work, we use the stability analysis of the symmetric phase to study the presence (for 1≤d<2) and absence (for 2≤d<3) of these inhomogeneous phases and the related moat regimes in the fully renormalized Gross-Neveu model in the μ,T-plane. We also discuss the relation between "the number of spatial dimensions" and "studying the model with a finite regulator" as well as the possible consequences for the limit d→3.

Inhomogeneous condensation in the Gross-Neveu model in noninteger spatial dimensions 1 ≤ d < 3
(2023)

The Gross-Neveu model in the N→∞ limit in d=1 spatial dimensions exhibits a chiral inhomogeneous phase (IP), where the chiral condensate has a spatial dependence that spontaneously breaks translational invariance and the Z2 chiral symmetry. This phase is absent in d=2, while in d=3 its existence and extent strongly depends on the regularization and the value of the finite regulator. This work connects these three results smoothly by extending the analysis to noninteger spatial dimensions 1≤d<3, where the model is fully renormalizable. To this end, we adapt the stability analysis, which probes the stability of the homogeneous ground state under inhomogeneous perturbations, to noninteger spatial dimensions. We find that the IP is present for all d<2 and vanishes exactly at d=2. Moreover, we find no instability toward an IP for 2≤d<3, which suggests that the IP in d=3 is solely generated by the presence of a regulator.

We study the μ-μ45-T phase diagram of the 2+1-dimensional Gross-Neveu model, where μ denotes the ordinary chemical potential, μ45 the chiral chemical potential and T the temperature. We use the mean-field approximation and two different lattice regularizations with naive chiral fermions. An inhomogeneous phase at finite lattice spacing is found for one of the two regularizations. Our results suggest that there is no inhomogeneous phase in the continuum limit. We show that a chiral chemical potential is equivalent to an isospin chemical potential. Thus, all results presented in this work can also be interpreted in the context of isospin imbalance.

The phase diagram of the (1+1)-dimensional Gross-Neveu model is reanalyzed for (non-)zero chemical potential and (non-)zero temperature within the mean-field approximation. By investigating the momentum dependence of the bosonic two-point function, the well-known second-order phase transition from the Z2 symmetric phase to the so-called inhomogeneous phase is detected. In the latter phase the chiral condensate is periodically varying in space and translational invariance is broken. This work is a proof of concept study that confirms that it is possible to correctly localize second-order phase transition lines between phases without condensation and phases of spatially inhomogeneous condensation via a stability analysis of the homogeneous phase. To complement other works relying on this technique, the stability analysis is explained in detail and its limitations and successes are discussed in context of the Gross-Neveu model. Additionally, we present explicit results for the bosonic wave-function renormalization in the mean-field approximation, which is extracted analytically from the bosonic two-point function. We find regions -- a so-called moat regime -- where the wave function renormalization is negative accompanying the inhomogeneous phase as expected.

In this work we study the 3+1-dimensional Nambu-Jona-Lasinio (NJL) model in the mean field-approximation. We carry out calculations using five different regularization schemes (two continuum and three lattice regularization schemes) with particular focus on inhomogeneous phases and condensates. The regularization schemes lead to drastically different inhomogeneous regions. We provide evidence that inhomogeneous condensates appear for all regularization schemes almost exclusively at values of the chemical potential and with wave numbers, which are of the order of or even larger than the corresponding regulators. This can be interpreted as indication that inhomogeneous phases in the 3+1-dimensional NJL model are rather artifacts of the regularization and not a consequence of the NJL Lagrangian and its symmetries.

In this work, the phase diagram of the 2+1-dimensional Gross-Neveu model is investigated with baryon chemical potential as well as chiral chemical potential in the mean-field approximation. We study the theory using two lattice discretizations, which are both based on naive fermions. An inhomogeneous chiral phase is observed only for one of the two discretizations. Our results suggest that this phase disappears in the continuum limit.

This thesis investigates exotic phases within effective models for strongly interacting matter.
The focus lies on the chiral inhomogeneous phase (IP) that is characterized by a spontaneous breaking of translational symmetry and the moat regime, which is a precursor phenomenon exhibiting a non-trivial mesonic dispersion relation.
These phenomena are expected to occur at non-zero baryon densities, which is a parameter region that is mostly non-accessible to first-principle investigations of Quantum chromodynamics (QCD).
As an alternative approach, we consider the Gross-Neveu (GN) and Nambu-Jona-Lasinio (NJL) model within the mean-field approximation, which can be regarded as effective models for QCD.
We focus on two aspects of the moat regime and the IP in these models.
First, we investigate the influence of the employed regularization scheme in the (3+1)-dimensional NJL model, which is nonrenormalizable, i.e., the regulator cannot be removed.
We find that the moat regime is a robust feature under change of regularization scheme, while the IP is sensitive to the specific choice of scheme.
This suggests that the moat regime is a universal feature of the phase diagram of the NJL model, while the IP might only be an artifact of the employed regulator.
Second, we study the influence of the number of spatial dimensions on the emergence of the IP.
To this end, we investigate the GN model in noninteger spatial dimensions d.
We find that the IP and the moat regime are present for d < 2, while they are absent for d > 2.
This demonstrates the central role of the dimensionality of spacetime and illustrates the connection of previously obtained results in this model in integer number of spatial dimensions.
Moreover, this suggests that the occurrence of these phenomena in three spatial dimensions is solely caused by the finite regulator.
In summary, this thesis contributes to advancing our understanding of the phase structure of QCD, particularly regarding the existence and characteristics of inhomogeneous phases and the moat regime.
Even though the investigations are performed within effective models, they provide valuable insight into the aspects that are crucial for the formation of an inhomogeneous chiral condensate in fermionic theories.