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In the initial stage of relativistic heavy-ion collisions, strong magnetic fields appear due to the large velocity of the colliding charges. The evolution of these fields appears as a novel and intriguing feature in the fluid-dynamical description of heavy-ion collisions. In this work, we study analytically the one-dimensional, longitudinally boost-invariant motion of an ideal fluid in the presence of a transverse magnetic field. Interestingly, we find that, in the limit of ideal magnetohydrodynamics, i.e., for infinite conductivity, and irrespective of the strength of the initial magnetization, the decay of the fluid energy density e with proper time τ is the same as for the time-honoured “Bjorken flow” without magnetic field. Furthermore, when the magnetic field is assumed to decay , where a is an arbitrary number, two classes of analytic solutions can be found depending on whether a is larger or smaller than one. In summary, the analytic solutions presented here highlight that the Bjorken flow is far more general than formerly thought. These solutions can serve both to gain insight on the dynamics of heavy-ion collisions in the presence of strong magnetic fields and as testbeds for numerical codes.

We present entropy-limited hydrodynamics (ELH): a new approach for the computation of numerical fluxes arising in the discretization of hyperbolic equations in conservation form. ELH is based on the hybridisation of an unfiltered high-order scheme with the first-order Lax-Friedrichs method. The activation of the low-order part of the scheme is driven by a measure of the locally generated entropy inspired by the artificial-viscosity method proposed by Guermond et al. (J. Comput. Phys. 230(11):4248-4267, 2011, doi:10.1016/j.jcp.2010.11.043). Here, we present ELH in the context of high-order finite-differencing methods and of the equations of general-relativistic hydrodynamics. We study the performance of ELH in a series of classical astrophysical tests in general relativity involving isolated, rotating and nonrotating neutron stars, and including a case of gravitational collapse to black hole. We present a detailed comparison of ELH with the fifth-order monotonicity preserving method MP5 (Suresh and Huynh in J. Comput. Phys. 136(1):83-99, 1997, doi:10.1006/jcph.1997.5745), one of the most common high-order schemes currently employed in numerical-relativity simulations. We find that ELH achieves comparable and, in many of the cases studied here, better accuracy than more traditional methods at a fraction of the computational cost (up to ∼50% speedup). Given its accuracy and its simplicity of implementation, ELH is a promising framework for the development of new special- and general-relativistic hydrodynamics codes well adapted for massively parallel supercomputers.

We have built quasi-equilibrium models for uniformly rotating quark stars in general relativity. The conformal flatness approximation is employed and the Compact Object CALculator (cocal) code is extended to treat rotating stars with surface density discontinuity. In addition to the widely used MIT bag model, we have considered a strangeon star equation of state (EoS), suggested by Lai and Xu, that is based on quark clustering and results in a stiff EoS. We have investigated the maximum mass of uniformly rotating axisymmetric quark stars. We have also built triaxially deformed solutions for extremely fast rotating quark stars and studied the possible gravitational wave emission from such configurations.

Einstein’s theory of general relativity is often regarded as the best theory of gravity that we know. Yet, this theory often manifests itself under conditions where no symmetry is present and nonlinear dynamics dominates. I will discuss how these conditions are systematically accompanied by the restoration of some degree of symmetry. Hence, despite gravity appearing often under conditions devoid of symmetry, asymptotic solutions tend to restore symmetry.

Hypermassive hybrid stars (HMHS) are extreme astrophysical objects that could be produced in the merger of a binary system of compact stars. In contrast to their purely hadronic counterparts, hypermassive neutron stars (HMNS), these highly differentially rotating objects contain deconfined strange quark matter in their slowly rotating inner region. HMHS and HMNS are both mestastable configurations and can survive only shortly after the merger before collapsing to rotating black holes. The appearance of the phase transition from hadronic to quark matter in the interior region of the HMHS and its conjunction with the emitted GW will be addressed in this article by focussing on a specific case study of the delayed phase-transition scenario that takes place during the post-merger evolution of the remnant. The complicated dynamics of the collapse from the HMNS to the more compact HMHS will be analysed in detail. In particular, we will show that the interplay between the spatial density/temperature distributions and the rotational profiles in the interior of the wobbling HMHS after the collapse generates a high-temperature shell within the hadron-quark mixed phase region of the remnant.

In this work, we discuss the dense matter equation of state (EOS) for the extreme range of conditions encountered in neutron stars and their mergers. The calculation of the properties of such an EOS involves modeling different degrees of freedom (such as nuclei, nucleons, hyperons, and quarks), taking into account different symmetries, and including finite density and temperature effects in a thermodynamically consistent manner. We begin by addressing subnuclear matter consisting of nucleons and a small admixture of light nuclei in the context of the excluded volume approach. We then turn our attention to supranuclear homogeneous matter as described by the Chiral Mean Field (CMF) formalism. Finally, we present results from realistic neutron-star-merger simulations performed using the CMF model that predict signatures for deconfinement to quark matter in gravitational wave signals.

We present the black hole accretion code (BHAC), a new multidimensional general-relativistic magnetohydrodynamics module for the MPI-AMRVAC framework. BHAC has been designed to solve the equations of ideal general-relativistic magnetohydrodynamics in arbitrary spacetimes and exploits adaptive mesh refinement techniques with an efficient block-based approach. Several spacetimes have already been implemented and tested. We demonstrate the validity of BHAC by means of various one-, two-, and three-dimensional test problems, as well as through a close comparison with the HARM3D code in the case of a torus accreting onto a black hole. The convergence of a turbulent accretion scenario is investigated with several diagnostics and we find accretion rates and horizon-penetrating fluxes to be convergent to within a few percent when the problem is run in three dimensions. Our analysis also involves the study of the corresponding thermal synchrotron emission, which is performed by means of a new general-relativistic radiative transfer code, BHOSS. The resulting synthetic intensity maps of accretion onto black holes are found to be convergent with increasing resolution and are anticipated to play a crucial role in the interpretation of horizon-scale images resulting from upcoming radio observations of the source at the Galactic Center.

n this article we will focus on the appearance of the hadron-quark phase transition and the formation of strange matter in the interior region of the hypermassive neutron star and its conjunction with the spectral properties of the emitted gravitational waves (GWs). A strong hadron-quark phase transition might give rise to a mass-radius relation with a twin star shape and we will show in this article that a twin star collapse followed by a twin star oscillation is feasible. If such a twin star collapse would happen during the postmerger phase it will be imprinted in the GW-signal.

Determining the phase structure of Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) and its Equation of State (EOS) at densities and temperatures realized inside neutron stars and their mergers is a long-standing open problem. The holographic V-QCD framework provides a model for the EOS of dense and hot QCD, which describes the deconfinement phase transition between a dense baryonic and a quark matter phase. We use this model in fully general relativistic hydrodynamic (GRHD) simulations to study the formation of quark matter and the emitted gravitational wave signal of binary systems that are similar to the first ever observed neutron star merger event GW170817.

Für die anstehende Runde der Exzellenzstrategie des Bundes und der Länder bewirbt sich die Goethe-Universität Frankfurt mit vier neuen Clustern zu den Forschungsthemen Vertrauen im Konflikt (CONTRUST), Infektion und Entzündung (EMTHERA), Ursprung der schweren Elemente (ELEMENTS) und zelluläre Architekturen (SCALE). Die Anträge vereinen die Kompetenzen und zukunftsweisenden Ideen der Goethe-Universität mit denen der Kolleg*innen des Verbunds der Rhein-Main-Universitäten (RMU) und weiterer Partner der vier großen Organisationen der außeruniversitären Forschung. Der seit 2019 bestehende Exzellenzcluster Cardiopulmonary Institute (CPI) wird im kommenden Jahr direkt einen Vollantrag einreichen.