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Assuming a cryptographically strong cyclic group G of prime order q and a random hash function H, we show that ElGamal encryption with an added Schnorr signature is secure against the adaptive chosen ciphertext attack, in which an attacker can freely use a decryption oracle except for the target ciphertext. We also prove security against the novel one-more-decyption attack. Our security proofs are in a new model, corresponding to a combination of two previously introduced models, the Random Oracle model and the Generic model. The security extends to the distributed threshold version of the scheme. Moreover, we propose a very practical scheme for private information retrieval that is based on blind decryption of ElGamal ciphertexts.

We introduce novel security proofs that use combinatorial counting arguments rather than reductions to the discrete logarithm or to the Diffie-Hellman problem. Our security results are sharp and clean with no polynomial reduction times involved. We consider a combination of the random oracle model and the generic model. This corresponds to assuming an ideal hash function H given by an oracle and an ideal group of prime order q, where the binary encoding of the group elements is useless for cryptographic attacks In this model, we first show that Schnorr signatures are secure against the one-more signature forgery : A generic adversary performing t generic steps including l sequential interactions with the signer cannot produce l+1 signatures with a better probability than (t 2)/q. We also characterize the different power of sequential and of parallel attacks. Secondly, we prove signed ElGamal encryption is secure against the adaptive chosen ciphertext attack, in which an attacker can arbitrarily use a decryption oracle except for the challenge ciphertext. Moreover, signed ElGamal encryption is secure against the one-more decryption attack: A generic adversary performing t generic steps including l interactions with the decryption oracle cannot distinguish the plaintexts of l + 1 ciphertexts from random strings with a probability exceeding (t 2)/q.