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We study tetraquark resonances with lattice QCD potentials computed for two static quarks and two dynamical quarks, the Born-Oppenheimer approximation and the emergent wave method of scattering theory. As a proof of concept we focus on systems with isospin I = 0, but consider different relative angular momenta l of the heavy b quarks. We compute the phase shifts and search for S and T matrix poles in the second Riemann sheet. We predict a new tetraquark resonance for l = 1, decaying into two B mesons, with quantum numbers I(JP) = 0(1−), mass MeV and decay width MeV.

Lattice QCD investigation of a doubly-bottom b̄b̄ud tetraquark with quantum numbers I(JP) = 0(1⁺)
(2019)

We use lattice QCD to investigate the spectrum of the ¯𝑏¯𝑏𝑢𝑑 four-quark system with quantum numbers 𝐼(𝐽𝑃)=0(1+). We use five different gauge-link ensembles with 2+1 flavors of domain-wall fermions, including one at the physical pion mass, and treat the heavy ¯𝑏 quark within the framework of lattice nonrelativistic QCD. Our work improves upon previous similar computations by considering in addition to local four-quark interpolators also nonlocal two-meson interpolators and by performing a Lüscher analysis to extrapolate our results to infinite volume. We obtain a binding energy of (−128±24±10) MeV, corresponding to the mass (10476±24±10) MeV, which confirms the existence of a ¯𝑏¯𝑏𝑢𝑑 tetraquark that is stable with respect to the strong and electromagnetic interactions.

We present first results of a recently started lattice QCD investigation of antiheavy-antiheavy-light-light tetraquark systems including scattering interpolating operators in correlation functions both at the source and at the sink. In particular, we discuss the importance of such scattering interpolating operators for a precise computation of the low-lying energy levels. We focus on the b¯b¯ud four-quark system with quantum numbers I(JP)=0(1+), which has a ground state below the lowest meson-meson threshold. We carry out a scattering analysis using Lüscher's method to extrapolate the binding energy of the corresponding QCD-stable tetraquark to infinite spatial volume. Our calculation uses clover u, d valence quarks and NRQCD b valence quarks on gauge-link ensembles with HISQ sea quarks that were generated by the MILC collaboration.

We present our recent results on antiheavy-antiheavy-light-light tetraquark systems using lattice QCD. Our study of the b¯b¯us four-quark system with quantum numbers JP=1+ and the b¯c¯ud four-quark systems with I(JP)=0(0+) and I(JP)=0(1+) utilizes scattering operators at the sink to improve the extraction of the low-lying energy levels. We found a bound state for b¯b¯us with Ebind,b¯b¯us=(−86±22±10)MeV, but no indication for a bound state in both b¯c¯ud channels. Moreover, we show preliminary results for b¯b¯ud with I(JP)=0(1+), where we used scattering operators both at the sink and the source. We found a bound state and determined its infinite-volume binding energy with a scattering analysis, resulting in Ebind,b¯b¯ud=(−103±8)MeV.

b̄b̄ud tetraquark resonances in the Born-Oppenheimer approximation using lattice QCD potentials
(2018)

We study tetraquark resonances using lattice QCD potentials for a pair of static antiquarks b¯b¯ in the presence of two light quarks ud. The system is treated in the Born-Oppenheimer approximation and we use the emergent wave method. We focus on the isospin I=0 channel, but consider different orbital angular momenta l of the heavy antiquarks b¯b¯. We extract the phase shifts and search for S and T matrix poles on the second Riemann sheet. For orbital angular momentum l=1 we find a tetraquark resonance with quantum numbers I(JP)=0(1−), resonance mass m=10576+4−4MeV and decay width Γ=112+90−103MeV, which can decay into two B mesons.

The theoretical and experimental investigation of exotic hadrons like tetraquarks is an important branch of modern elementary particle physics. In this thesis I investigate different four-quark systems using lattice QCD and search for evidence of stable tetraquark states or resonances.
Lattice QCD as a non-perturbative approach to QCD allows an accurate and reliable determination of the masses of strongly bound hadrons.
However, most tetraquarks appear as weakly bound states or resonances, which makes a theoretical investigation using lattice QCD difficult due to the finite spatial volume. A rigorous treatment of such systems is feasible using the so-called Lüscher method. This allows to calculate the scattering amplitude based on the finite-volume energy spectrum determined in a lattice QCD calculation. Similarly to the analysis of experimental data, this scattering amplitude can be used to determine the binding energies of bound states or the masses and decay widths of resonances in the infinite volume.
In my work I calculate the low-energy energy spectra of different four-quark systems and use - if necessary - the Lüscher method to determine the masses of potential tetraquark states.
I focus on systems consisting of two heavy antiquarks and two light quarks, where at least one of the heavy antiquarks is a bottom quark.
Even though such tetraquarks have not yet been experimentally detected, they are considered promising candidates for particles that are stable with respect to the strong interaction.
A decisive step for successfully calculating low-lying energy levels for such four-quark systems is a carefully chosen set of creation operators, which represent the physical states most accurately. In addition to operators that generate a local structure where all four quarks are located at the same space-time point, I also use so-called scattering operators that resemble two spatially separated mesons. These scattering operators turned out to be relevant for successfully determining the lowest energy levels and are therefore essential, especially if a Lüscher analysis is carried out.
In my work, I considered two different lattice setups to study the four-quark systems $\bar{b}\bar{b}ud$ with $I(J^P)=0(1^+) $, $\bar{b}\bar{b}us$ with $J^P=1^+ $ and $\bar{b}\bar{c}ud$ with $I(J^P)=0(0^+) $ and $I(J^P)=0(1^+) $ and to predict potential tetraquark states. In both setups, I considered scattering operators. While in the first setup I used them only as annihilation operators, in the second setup they were included both as creation and annihilation operators. Additionally, in the second lattice setup, I performed a simplified investigation of the $\bar{b}\bar{b}ud$ system with $I(J^P)=0(1^-) $, which is a potential candidate for a tetraquark resonance. The results of the investigation of the mentioned four-quark systems can be summarized as follows:
For the $ \bar{b}\bar{b}ud $ four-quark system with $ I(J^P)=0(1^+) $ I found a deeply bound ground state slightly more than $ 100\,\textrm{MeV} $ below the lowest meson-meson threshold. The existence of a corresponding $\bar{b}\bar{b}ud$ tetraquark in the infinite volume was confirmed using a Lüscher analysis and possible systematic errors due to the use of lattice QCD were taken into account.
Similar results were obtained for the $ \bar{b}\bar{b}us $ four-quark system with $ J^P=1^+ $. Again, I found a ground state well below the lowest meson-meson threshold, but slightly weaker bound than for the $ \bar{b}\bar{b}ud $ system. Effects due to the finite volume turned out to be negligible for this system, as already predicted for the $ \bar{b}\bar{b}ud $ system. \item For the $ \bar{b}\bar{c}ud $ four-quark systems with $ (J^P)=0(0^+) $ and $ (J^P)=0(1^+) $ I was able to rule out the existence of a deeply bound tetraquark states based on the energy spectrum in the finite volume. However, by means of a scattering analysis using the Lüscher method, I found evidence a broad resonance for both channels.
In the case of the $ \bar{b}\bar{b}ud $ four-quark system with $ I(J^P)=0(1^-) $, I could neither confirm the existence of a resonance, nor rule out its existence with certainty.
In particular, my investigations showed that the results of the two different lattice simulations are consistent. The theoretical prediction of the bound tetraquark states $\bar{b}\bar{b}ud$ and $\bar{b}\bar{b}us$ as well as the tetraquark resonances in the $\bar{b}\bar{c}ud$ system in this work represent an important contribution to the future experimental search for exotic hadrons and can support the discovery of previously unobserved particles.

In this work we investigate the existence of bound states for doubly heavy tetraquark systems Q¯Q¯′qq′ in a full lattice-QCD computation, where heavy bottom quarks are treated in the framework of non-relativistic QCD. We focus on three systems with quark content b¯b¯ud, b¯b¯us and b¯c¯ud. We show evidence for the existence of b¯b¯ud and b¯b¯us bound states, while no binding appears to be present for b¯c¯ud. For the bound four-quark states we also discuss the importance of various creation operators and give an estimate of the meson-meson and diquark-antidiquark percentages.

b̄b̄ud tetraquark resonances in the Born-Oppenheimer approximation using lattice QCD potentials
(2019)

We study tetraquark resonances for a pair of static antiquarks b¯b¯ in presence of two light quarks ud based on lattice QCD potentials. The system is treated in the Born-Oppenheimer approximation and we use the emergent wave method. We focus on the isospin I = 0 channel but take different angular momenta l of the heavy antiquarks b¯b¯ into account. Further calculations have already predicted a bound state for the l = 0 case with quantum numbers I(JP) = 0(1+). Performing computations for several angular momenta, we extract the phase shifts and search for T and S matrix poles in the second Riemann sheet. For angular momentum l = 1, we predict a tetraquark resonance with quantum numbers I(JP) = 0(1−), resonance mass m = 10576+4−4 MeV and decay width Γ = 112+90−103 MeV, which decays into two B mesons.

We use lattice QCD to investigate the existence of strong-interaction-stable antiheavy-antiheavy-light-light tetraquarks. We study the ¯𝑏¯𝑏𝑢𝑠 system with quantum numbers 𝐽𝑃=1+ as well as the ¯𝑏¯𝑐𝑢𝑑 systems with quantum numbers 𝐼(𝐽𝑃)=0(0+) and 𝐼(𝐽𝑃)=0(1+). We carry out computations on five gauge-link ensembles with 2+1 flavors of domain-wall fermions, including one at the physical pion mass. The bottom quarks are implemented using lattice nonrelativistic QCD, and the charm quarks using an anisotropic clover action. In addition to local diquark-antidiquark and local meson-meson interpolating operators, we include nonlocal meson-meson operators at the sink, which facilitates the reliable determination of the low-lying energy levels. We find clear evidence for the existence of a strong-interaction-stable ¯𝑏¯𝑏𝑢𝑠 tetraquark with binding energy (−86±22±10) MeV and mass (10609±22±10) MeV. For the ¯𝑏¯𝑐𝑢𝑑 systems we do not find any indication for the existence of bound states, but cannot rule out their existence either.