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Objectives: The aim of this multicenter retrospective study was to investigate safety and efficacy of direct acting antiviral (DAA) treatment in the rare subgroup of patients with HCV/HIV-coinfection and advanced liver cirrhosis on the liver transplant waiting list or after liver transplantation, respectively.
Methods: When contacting 54 German liver centers (including all 23 German liver transplant centers), 12 HCV/HIV-coinfected patients on antiretroviral combination therapy were reported having received additional DAA therapy while being on the waiting list for liver transplantation (patient characteristics: Child-Pugh A (n = 6), B (n = 5), C (n = 1); MELD range 7–21; HCC (n = 2); HCV genotype 1a (n = 8), 1b (n = 2), 4 (n = 2)). Furthermore, 2 HCV/HIV-coinfected patients were denoted having received DAA therapy after liver transplantation (characteristics: HCV genotype 1a (n = 1), 4 (n = 1)).
Results: Applied DAA regimens were SOF/DAC (n = 7), SOF/LDV/RBV (n = 3), SOF/RBV (n = 3), PTV/r/OBV/DSV (n = 1), or PTV/r/OBV/DSV/RBV (n = 1), respectively. All patients achieved SVR 12, in the end. In one patient, HCV relapse occurred after 24 weeks of SOF/DAC therapy; subsequent treatment with 12 weeks PTV/r/OBV/DSV achieved SVR 12. One patient underwent liver transplantation while on DAA treatment. Analysis of liver function revealed either stable parameters or even significant improvement during DAA therapy and in follow-up. MELD scores were found to improve in 9/13 therapies in patients on the waiting list for liver transplantation; in only 2 patients a moderate increase of MELD scores persisted at the end of follow-up.
Conclusion: DAA treatment was safe and highly effective in this nation-wide cohort of patients with HCV/HIV-coinfection awaiting liver transplantation or being transplanted.

A two-center shell model with oscillator potentials, l→·s→ forces, and l→2 terms is developed. The shell structures of the original spherical nucleus and those of the final fragments are reproduced. For small separation of the two centers the level structure resembles the Nilsson scheme. This two-center shell model might be of importance in problems of nuclear fission.

Viscous hydrodynamic calculations of high energy heavy-ion collisions (Nb-Nb and Au-Au) from 200 to 800 MeV/nucleon are presented. The resulting baryon rapidity distributions, the in-plane transverse momentum transfer (bounce-off), and the azimuthal dependence of the midrapidity particles (off-plane squeeze out) compare well with Plastic Ball data. We find that the considered observables are sensitive both to the nuclear equation of state and to the nuclear shear viscosity η. Transverse momentum distributions indicate a high shear viscosity (η≊60 MeV/fm2 c) in the compression zone, in agreement with nuclear matter estimates. The bulk viscosity ζ influences only the entropy production during the expansion stage; collective observables like flow and dN/dY do not depend strongly on ζ. The recently observed off-plane (φ=90°) squeeze-out, which is found in the triple-differential rapidity distribution, exhibits the strongest sensitivity to the nuclear equation of state. It is demonstrated that for very central collisions, b=1 fm, the squeeze-out is visible even in the double-differential cross section. This is experimentally accessible by studying azimuthally symmetric events, as confirmed recently by data of the European 4π detector collaboration at Gesellchaft für Schwerionforschung Darmstadt.

We calculate the asymptotic high-energy amplitude for electrons scattering at one ion, as well as at two colliding ions, by means of perturbation theory. We show that the interaction with one ion eikonalizes and that the interaction with two ions causally decouples. We are able to put previous results on perturbative grounds and propose further applications for the obtained rules for interactions on the light cone. We discuss the implications of the eikonal amplitude on the pair production probability in ultrarelativistic peripheral heavy-ion collisions. In this context the Weizsäcker-Williams method is shown to be exact in the ultrarelativistic limit, irrespective of the produced particles’ mass. A new equivalent single-photon distribution is derived, which correctly accounts for Coulomb distortions. The impact on single-photon induced processes is discussed.

We calculate thermal photon and neutral pion spectra in ultrarelativistic heavy-ion collisions in the framework of three-fluid hydrodynamics. Both spectra are quite sensitive to the equation of state used. In particular, within our model, recent data for S + Au at 200 AGeV can only be understood if a scenario with a phase transition (possibly to a quark-gluon plasma) is assumed. Results for Au+Au at 11 AGeV and Pb + Pb at 160 AGeV are also presented.

The rapidity distribution of thermal photons produced in Pb+Pb collisions at CERN-SPS energies is calculated within scaling and three- fluid hydrodynamics. It is shown that these scenarios lead to very different rapidity spectra. A measurement of the rapidity dependence of photon radiation can give cleaner insight into the reaction dynamics than pion spectra, especially into the rapidity dependence of the temperature.

Die unten folgende Stellungnahme wurde dem Herausgeber der Zeitschrift für deutsches Altertum und deutsche Literatur angeboten, um eine Reihe von gravierenden Missverständnissen eines Rezensenten (Jürgen Schulz-Grobert) auszuräumen, die dieser in seiner Besprechung des zweiten Bandes der Sämtlichen Werke Johann Fischarts der Fachwelt gegenüber erkennen ließ. Der Herausgeber der Zeitschrift verweigerte sich einer Diskussion und lehnte den Abdruck unserer Entgegnung ab. Dies ist umso bedauerlicher, als uns der Rezensent den Vorwurf gemacht hat, unsere "Diskussionsbereitschaft [...] [sei] auch in anderen entscheidenden Fragen ausgesprochen begrenzt", was immer er damit meint.

The origin and importance of electron-translation effects within a molecular description of electronic excitations in heavy-ion collisions is investigated. First, a fully consistent quantum-mechanical description of the scattering process is developed; the electrons are described by relativistic molecular orbitals, while the nuclear motion is approximated nonrelativistically. Leaving the quantum-mechanical level by using the semiclassical approximation for the nuclear motion, a set of coupled differential equations for the occupation amplitudes of the molecular orbitals is derived. In these coupled-channel equations the spurious asymptotic dynamical couplings are corrected for by additional matrix elements stemming from the electron translation. Hence, a molecular description of electronic excitations in heavy-ion scattering has been achieved, which is free from the spurious asymptotic couplings of the conventional perturbated stationary-state approach. The importance of electron-translation effects for continuum electrons and positrons is investigated. To this end an algorithm for the description of continuum electrons is proposed, which for the first time should allow for the calculation of angular distributions for δ electrons. Finally, the practical consequences of electron-translation effects are studied by calculating the corrected coupling matrix elements for the Pb-Cm system and comparing the corresponding K-vacancy probabilities with conventional calculations. We critically discuss conventional methods for cutting off the coupling matrix elements in coupled-channel calculations.

We define a new scalar-tensor theory with an effective gravitational coupling constant depending on a scalar field. The coupling is such that the gravitational interaction decreases with the strength of the scalar field. We show that this is not sufficient to prevent the gravitational collapse of sufficiently massive dense objects.