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Topological phases set themselves apart from other phases since they cannot be understood in terms of the usual Landau theory of phase transitions. This fact, which is a consequence of the property that topological phase transitions can occur without breaking symmetries, is reflected in the complicated form of topological order parameters. While the mathematical classification of phases through homotopy theory is known, an intuition for the relation between phase transitions and changes to the physical system is largely inhibited by the general complexity.
In this thesis we aim to get back some of this intuition by studying the properties of the Chern number (a topological order parameter) in two scenarios. First, we investigate the effect of electronic correlations on topological phases in the Green's function formalism. By developing a statistical method that averages over all possible solutions of the manybody problem, we extract general statements about the shape of the phase diagram and investigate the stability of topological phases with respect to interactions. In addition, we find that in many topological models the local approximation, which is part of many standard methods for solving the manybody lattice model, is able to produce qualitatively correct phase transitions at low to intermediate correlations.
We then extend the statistical method to study the effect of the lattice, where we evaluate possible applications of standard machine learning techniques against our information theoretical approach. We define a measure for the information about particular topological phases encoded in individual lattice parameters, which allows us to construct a qualitative phase diagram that gives a more intuitive understanding of the topological phase.
Finally, we discuss possible applications of our method that could facilitate the discovery of new materials with topological properties.

In this work I investigate two different systems - spin systems and charge-density-waves. The same theoretical method is used to investigate both types of system. My investigations are motivated by experimental investigations and the goal is to describe the experimental results theoretically. For this purpose I formulate kinetic equations starting from the microscopical dynamics of the systems.
First of all, a method is formulated to derive the kinetic equations diagrammatically. Within this method an expansion in equal-time connected correlation functions is carried out. The generating functional of connected correlations is employed to derive the method.
The first system to be investigated is a thin stripe of the magnetic insulator yttrium-iron-garnet (YIG). Magnons are pumped parametrically with an external microwave field. The motivation of my theoretical investigations is to explain the experimental observations. In a small parameter range close to the confluence field strength where confluence processes of two parametrically pumped magnons with the same wave vector becomes kinematically possible the efficiency of the pumping is reduced or enhanced depending on the pumping field strength. Because it is expected that that confluence and splitting processes of magnons are essential for the experimental observations I go beyond the kinetic theories that are conventionally applied in the context of parametric excitations in YIG and investigate the influence of cubic vertices on the parametric instability of magnons in YIG.
Furthermore, the influence of phonons is investigated. Usually in the literature these are taken into account as heat bath. Here, I want to explain experiments where an accumulation of magnetoelastic bosons - magnon-phonon-quasi-particles - has been observed. I employ the method of kinetic equations to investigate this phenomenon theoretically. The kinetic theory is able to reproduce the experimental observations and it is shown that the accumulation of magnetoelastic bosons is purely incoherent.
Finally, charge-density waves (CDW) in quasi-one-dimensional materials will be investigated. Charge-density waves emerge from a Peierls-instability and are a prime example for spontaneous symmetry breaking in solids. Again, the motivation for my theoretical investigations are an experiment where the spectrum of amplitude and phase phonon modes has been measured. Starting from the FrÃ¶hlich-Hamiltonian I derive kinetic equations and from these kinetic equations the equations of motion for the CDW order parameter can be derived. The frequencies and damping rates of amplitude and phase phonon modes will be derived from the linearized equations of motion. I compare my theory with existing methods. Furthermore, I also investigate the influence of Coulomb interaction.