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A pattern is a word that consists of variables and terminal symbols. The pattern language that is generated by a pattern A is the set of all terminal words that can be obtained from A by uniform replacement of variables with terminal words. For example, the pattern A = a x y a x (where x and y are variables, and the letter a is a terminal symbol) generates the set of all words that have some word a x both as prefix and suffix (where these two occurrences of a x do not overlap). Due to their simple definition, pattern languages have various connections to a wide range of other areas in theoretical computer science and mathematics. Among these areas are combinatorics on words, logic, and the theory of free semigroups. On the other hand, many of the canonical questions in formal language theory are surprisingly difficult. The present thesis discusses various aspects of the inclusion problem of pattern languages. It can be divide in two parts. The first one examines the decidability of pattern languages with a limited number of variables and fixed terminal alphabets. In addition to this, the minimizability of regular expressions with repetition operators is studied. The second part deals with descriptive patterns, the smallest generalizations of arbitrary languages through pattern languages ("smallest" with respect to the inclusion relation). Main questions are the existence and the discoverability of descriptive patterns for arbitrary languages.

Relational data exchange deals with translating relational data according to a given specification. This problem is one of the many tasks that arise in data integration, for example, in data restructuring, in ETL (Extract-Transform-Load) processes used for updating data warehouses, or in data exchange between different, possibly independently created, applications. Systems for relational data exchange exist for several decades now. Motivated by their experiences with one of those systems, Fagin, Kolaitis, Miller, and Popa (2003) studied fundamental and algorithmic issues arising in relational data exchange. One of these issues is how to answer queries that are posed against the target schema (i.e., against the result of the data exchange) so that the answers are consistent with the source data. For monotonic queries, the certain answers semantics proposed by Fagin, Kolaitis, Miller, and Popa (2003) is appropriate. For many non-monotonic queries, however, the certain answers semantics was shown to yield counter-intuitive results. This thesis deals with computing the certain answers for monotonic queries on the one hand, and on the other hand, it deals with the issue of which semantics are appropriate for answering non-monotonic queries, and how hard it is to evaluate non-monotonic queries under these semantics. As shown by Fagin, Kolaitis, Miller, and Popa (2003), computing the certain answers for unions of conjunctive queries - a subclass of the monotonic queries - basically reduces to computing universal solutions, provided the data transformation is specified by a set of tgds (tuple-generating dependencies) and egds (equality-generating dependencies). If M is such a specification and S is a source database, then T is called a solution for S under M if T is a possible result of translating S according to M. Intuitively, universal solutions are most general solutions. Since the above-mentioned work by Fagin, Kolaitis, Miller, and Popa it was unknown whether it is decidable if a source database has a universal solution under a given data exchange specification. In this thesis, we show that this problem is undecidable. More precisely, we construct a specification M that consists of tgds only so that it is undecidable whether a given source database has a universal solution under M. From the proof it also follows that it is undecidable whether the chase procedure - by which universal models can be obtained - terminates on a given source database and the set of tgds in M. The above results in particular strengthen results of Deutsch, Nash, and Remmel (2008). Concerning the issue of which semantics are appropriate for answering non-monotonic queries, we study several semantics for answering such queries. All of these semantics are based on the closed world assumption (CWA). First, the CWA-semantics of Libkin (2006) are extended so that they can be applied to specifications consisting of tgds and egds. The key is to extend the concept of CWA-solution, on which the CWA-semantics are based. CWA-solutions are characterized as universal solutions that are derivable from the source database using a suitably controlled version of the chase procedure. In particular, if CWA-solutions exist, then there is a minimal CWA-solution that is unique up to isomorphism: the core of the universal solutions introduced by Fagin, Kolaitis, and Popa (2003). We show that evaluation of a query under some of the CWA-semantics reduces to computing the certain answers to the query on the minimal CWA-solution. The CWA-semantics resolve some the known problems with answering non-monotonic queries. There are, however, two natural properties that are not possessed by the CWA-semantics. On the one hand, queries may be answered differently with respect to data exchange specifications that are logically equivalent. On the other hand, there are queries whose answer under the CWA-semantics intuitively contradicts the information derivable from the source database and the data exchange specification. To find an alternative semantics, we first test several CWA-based semantics from the area of deductive databases for their suitability regarding non-monotonic query answering in relational data exchange. More precisely, we focus on the CWA-semantics by Reiter (1978), the GCWA-semantics (Minker 1982), the EGCWA-semantics (Yahya, Henschen 1985) and the PWS-semantics (Chan 1993). It turns out that these semantics are either too weak or too strong, or do not possess the desired properties. Finally, based on the GCWA-semantics we develop the GCWA*-semantics which intuitively possesses the desired properties. For monotonic queries, some of the CWA-semantics as well as the GCWA*-semantics coincide with the certain answers semantics, that is, results obtained for the certain answers semantics carry over to those semantics. When studying the complexity of evaluating non-monotonic queries under the above-mentioned semantics, we focus on the data complexity, that is, the complexity when the data exchange specification and the query are fixed. We show that in many cases, evaluating non-monotonic queries is hard: co-NP- or NP-complete, or even undecidable. For example, evaluating conjunctive queries with at least one negative literal under simple specifications may be co-NP-hard. Notice, however, that this result only says that there is such a query and such a specification for which the problem is hard, but not that the problem is hard for all such queries and specifications. On the other hand, we identify a broad class of queries - the class of universal queries - which can be evaluated in polynomial time under the GCWA*-semantics, provided the data exchange specification is suitably restricted. More precisely, we show that universal queries can be evaluated on the core of the universal solutions, independent of the source database and the specification.

This thesis presents various algorithms which have been developed for on-line event reconstruction in the CBM experiment at GSI, Darmstadt and the ALICE experiment at CERN, Geneve. Despite the fact that the experiments are different — CBM is a fixed target experiment with forward geometry, while ALICE has a typical collider geometry — they share common aspects when reconstruction is concerned.
The thesis describes:
— general modifications to the Kalman filter method, which allows one to accelerate, to improve, and to simplify existing fit algorithms;
— developed algorithms for track fit in CBM and ALICE experiment, including a new method for track extrapolation in non-homogeneous magnetic field.
— developed algorithms for primary and secondary vertex fit in the both experiments. In particular, a new method of reconstruction of decayed particles is presented.
— developed parallel algorithm for the on-line tracking in the CBM experiment.
— developed parallel algorithm for the on-line tracking in High Level Trigger of the ALICE experiment.
— the realisation of the track finders on modern hardware, such as SIMD CPU registers and GPU accelerators.
All the presented methods have been developed by or with the direct participation of the author.