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In this thesis we have studied the physics of different ultracold Bose-Fermi mixtures in optical lattices, as well as spin 1=2 fermions in a harmonic trap. To study these systems we generalized dynamical mean-field theory for a mixture of fermions and bosons, as well as for an inhomogeneous environment. Generalized dynamical mean-field theory (GDMFT) is a method that describes a mixture of fermions and bosons. This method consists of Gutzwiller mean-field for the bosons, and dynamical mean-field theory for the fermions, which are coupled on-site by the Bose-Fermi density-density interaction and possibly a Feshbach term which converts a pair of up and down fermions into a molecule, i.e. a boson. We derived the self-consistency equations and showed that this method is well-controlled in the limit of high lattice coordination number z. We develop real-space dynamical mean-field theory for studying systems in an inhomogeneous environment, e.g. in a harmonic trap. The crucial difference compared to standard DMFT is that we are taking into account that different sites are not equivalent to each other and thus take into account the inhomogeneity of the system. Different sites are coupled by the real-space Dyson equation. ...

Hofstadter-Hubbard physics
(2020)

The Hofstadter model, besides the Haldane and Kane-Mele models, is the most common tight-binding model which hosts topologically nontrivial states of matter. In its time-reversal-symmetric formulation the model can even describe topological insulators. Experimentally, the Hofstadter model was realized with ultracold quantum gases in optical lattices which is a wellcontrolled way to engineer quantum states of tight-binding Hamiltonians. Another established control parameter in ultracold quantum gases are twoparticle, on-site interactions, also known as Hubbard interactions. This work aims at introducing the reader to the concepts of topological states of matter, a collection of corresponding tight-binding models, and the methodology to treat interacting topological states with dynamical mean-field theory.We present recent results for inhomogeneous, interacting systems, spinimbalanced magnetic systems, propose experimental detection methods, and extensions to three-dimensional topological states.

Interacting ultracold gases in optical lattices: non-equilibrium dynamics and effects of disorder
(2012)

This dissertation aims at giving a theoretical description of various applications of ultracold gases. A particular focus is cast upon the dynamical evolution of bosonic condensates in non-equilibrium by means of the time-dependent Gutzwiller method. Ground state properties of strongly interacting fermionic atoms in box and speckle disordered lattices are investigated via real-space dynamical mean-field theory. ...

In the course of this thesis we discuss a certain kind of supersolid, the lattice-supersolid, which can be realized using quantum gases in an optical lattice trap. The lattice-supersolid, which simultaneously possesses off-diagonal and diagonal long-range order in its density matrix and also breaks the discrete translational symmetry of an underlying lattice, is induced by self-ordering of the gas due to strong long-range van der Waals interactions. In the considered scenario, the interactions are facilitated by the excitation of atomic Rydberg states, which exhibit enhanced van der Waals forces.
In the first part of this thesis (chapters 1-3), we review the relevant basics of quantum gases, Rydberg physics and introduce the extended Bose-Hubbard model. We start with the relevant methods and devices of the vast toolbox available in common quantum gas experiments, as well as consider the main concepts behind superfluidity and supersolidity. This is followed by an introduction of some basic concepts of Rydberg atoms in quantum many-body systems, with a focus on the facilitation of long-range interactions and the implementation in a theoretical model. Thereafter a brief introduction is given, on the realization of the Bose-Hubbard model in optical lattice systems and its extension to include Rydberg states, which concludes the introductory part of this thesis.
In the following part (chapters 4-6), we introduce the theoretical tools used to derive the results presented in the final part. First, an introduction to a real-space extension of bosonic dynamical mean-field theory (RB-DMFT) for bosonic systems with long-range interactions in the Hartree approximation is given. This method is based on the non-perturbative self-consistent evaluation of the lattice Green’s function, which also incorporates the effect of nearest neighbor correlations due to the non-condensed particles. Then we focus on a quasiparticle expansion of the Bose-Hubbard model, which has its foundation in linearized fluctuations of a static mean-field ground-state, allowing for the prediction of a vast range of experimentally relevant observables. Lastly, we introduce an efficient truncation scheme for the local bosonic Fock-basis, which allows for the simulation of phases with high condensate density at a vastly reduced computational effort.
In the final part (chapters 7 and 8), we discuss the application of both methods to itinerant bosonic gases in two-dimensional optical lattices, in order to predict the equilibrium ground-state phases, as well as the signatures of supersolidity and its formation in spectral functions and the dynamic and static structure factor. Specifically, we focus on two limiting cases. Firstly, we consider a two-component gas, as realized by two hyperfine ground states, for example, of rubidium-87, where one component is off-resonantly excited to a Rydberg state, which generates a soft-core shaped interaction potential. Secondly, we discuss the opposing limit, using near-resonant excitations
of Rydberg states, where the interacting component now directly corresponds to the Rydberg state, which interacts via a van der Waals potential. In both cases we discuss the rich variety of supersolid phases, which are found for a wide range of parameters. We also discuss how some of these phases can be realized in experiment.
In the subsequent appendices (A to D) we discuss some methodological details. Most notably, we consider the possible Fock-extension of the Hartree approximation (appendix A), introduced in the RB-DMFT treatment of the extended Bose-Hubbard model.

Seit Anbeginn der Festkörperphysik ist die Frage, warum manche Materialien metallisch sind, andere dagegen isolierend, von zentraler Bedeutung. Eine erste Erklärung wurde durch die Bändertheorie [23, 44] gegeben. Die Elektronen sind dem periodischen Potential der Rumpfatome ausgesetzt, wodurch ein Energiespektrum bestehend aus Bändern erzeugt wird und die Füllung dieser Bänder bestimmt die Leitungseigenschaften des Festkörpers. ...

In this thesis we discussed the expansion behaviour of an ultracold bosonic gas from an initial harmonic confinement. We studied the reaction of the non-interacting system to changes of the trap frequency ω and of the strongly interacting system to changes of the number of Mott insulating particles NMI in the initial state and the interaction U/J. The total number of particles is kept constant for the different simulations, which are performed by means of the Bosonic Gutzwiller approach...

Folgend auf den ersten Realisierungen von Bose-Einstein Kondensaten erschienen weitere innovative Experimente, die sich in den optischen Gittern gefangenen Quantengasen widmeten. In diesen zahlreichen, wissenschaftlichen Untersuchungen konnten die Eigenschaften von Bose-Einstein Kondensaten besser verstanden werden. Das Prinzip von Vielteilchensystemen, gefangen in einem periodischen Potential, bot eine Plattform zur Untersuchung weiterer Quantenphasen.
Eine konzeptionell einfache Modifikation von solchen Systemen erhält man durch die Kopplung der Grundzustände der gefangenen Teilchen an hoch angeregten Zuständen mithilfe einer externen Lichtquelle. Im Falle dessen, dass diese Zustände nahe der Ionisationsgrenze des Atoms liegen, spricht man von Rydberg-Zuständen und Atome, welche zu diesen Zuständen angeregt werden, bezeichnet man als Rydberg-Atome. Eines der vielen charakteristischen Eigenschaften von Rydberg-Atomen ist die Fähigkeit über große Entfernungen jenseits der atomaren Längenskalen zu wechselwirken. Im Rahmen von Vielteilchensystemen wurden dementsprechend Kristallstrukturen aus gefangenen Rydberg-Atomen experimentell beobachtet.
Nun stellt sich die Frage, was mit einem gefangenen Bose-Einstein Kondensat passiert, dessen Teilchen an langreichweitig wechselwirkenden Zuständen gekoppelt sind. Gibt es ein Parameterregime, in dem sowohl Kristallstruktur als auch Suprafluidität in solchen Systemen koexistieren können? Dies ist die zentrale Frage dieser Arbeit, die sich mit der Theorie von gefangenen Quantengasen gekoppelt an Rydberg-Zuständen auseinandersetzt.

The miniaturization of electronics is reaching its limits. Structures necessary to build integrated circuits from semiconductors are shrinking and could reach the size of only a few atoms within the next few years. It will be at the latest at this point in time that the physics of nanostructures gains importance in our every day life. This thesis deals with the physics of quantum impurity models. All models of this class exhibit an identical structure: the simple and small impurity only has few degrees of freedom. It can be built out of a small number of atoms or a single molecule, for example. In the simplest case it can be described by a single spin degree of freedom, in many quantum impurity models, it can be treated exactly. The complexity of the description arises from its coupling to a large number of fermionic or bosonic degrees of freedom (large meaning that we have to deal with particle numbers of the order of 10^{23}). An exact treatment thus remains impossible. At the same time, physical effects which arise in quantum impurity systems often cannot be described within a perturbative theory, since multiple energy scales may play an important role. One example for such an effect is the Kondo effect, where the free magnetic moment of the impurity is screened by a "cloud" of fermionic particles of the quantum bath.
The Kondo effect is only one example for the rich physics stemming from correlation effects in many body systems. Quantum impurity models, and the oftentimes related Kondo effect, have regained the attention of experimental and theoretical physicists since the advent of quantum dots, which are sometimes also referred to as as artificial atoms. Quantum dots offer a unprecedented control and tunability of many system parameters. Hence, they constitute a nice "playground" for fundamental research, while being promising candidates for building blocks of future technological devices as well.
Recently Loss' and DiVincenzo's p roposal of a quantum computing scheme based on spins in quantum dots, increased the efforts of experimentalists to coherently manipulate and read out the spins of quantum dots one by one. In this context two topics are of paramount importance for future quantum information processing: since decoherence times have to be large enough to allow for good error correction schemes, understanding the loss of phase coherence in quantum impurity systems is a prerequisite for quantum computation in these systems. Nonequilibrium phenomena in quantum impurity systems also have to be understood, before one may gain control of manipulating quantum bits.
As a first step towards more complicated nonequilibrium situations, the reaction of a system to a quantum quench, i.e. a sudden change of external fields or other parameters of the system can be investigated. We give an introduction to a powerful numerical method used in this field of research, the numerical renormalization group method, and apply this method and its recent enhancements to various quantum impurity systems.
The main part of this thesis may be structured in the following way:
- Ferromagnetic Kondo Model,
- Spin-Dynamics in the Anisotropic Kondo and the Spin-Boson Model,
- Two Ising-coupled Spins in a Bosonic Bath,
- Decoherence in an Aharanov-Bohm Interferometer.

Landau's Fermi liquid theory has been the main tool for investigating interactions between fermions at low energies for more than 50 years. It has been successful in describing, amongst other things, the mass enhancement in ³He and the thermodynamics of a large class of metals. Whilst this in itself is remarkable given the phenomenological nature of the original theory, experiments have found several materials, such as some superconducting and heavy-fermion materials, which cannot be described within the Fermi liquid picture. Because of this, many attempts have been made to understand these ''non Fermi liquid'' phases from a theoretical perspective. This will be the broad topic of the first part of this thesis and will be investigated in Chapter 2, where we consider a two-dimensional system of electrons interacting close to a Fermi surface through a damped gapless bosonic field. Such systems are known to give rise to non Fermi liquid behaviour. In particular we will consider the Ising-nematic quantum critical point of a two-dimensional metal. At this quantum critical point the Fermi liquid theory breaks down and the fermionic self-energy acquires the non Fermi liquid like {omega}²/³ frequency dependence at lowest order and within the canonical Hertz-Millis approach to quantum criticality of interacting fermions. Previous studies have however shown that, due to the gapless nature of the electronic single-particle excitations, the exponent of 2/3 is modified by an anomalous dimension {eta_psi} which changes, not only the exponent of the frequency dependence, but also the exponent of the momentum dependence of the self-energy. These studies also show that the usual 1/N-expansion breaks down for this problem. We therefore develop an alternative approach to calculate the anomalous dimensions based on the functional renormalization group, which will be introduced in the introductory Chapter 1. Doing so we will be able to calculate both the anomalous dimension renormalizing the exponent of the frequency dependence and the exponent renormalizing the momentum dependence of the self-energy. Moreover we will see that an effective interaction between the bosonic fields, mediated by the fermions, is crucial in order to obtain these renormalizations.
In the second part of this thesis, presented in Chapter 3, we return to Fermi liquid theory itself. Indeed, despite its conceptual simplicity of expressing interacting electrons through long-lived quasi-particles which behave in a similar fashion as free particles, albeit with renormalized parameters, it remains an active area of research. In particular, in order to take into account the full effects of interactions between quasi-particles, it is crucial to consider specific microscopic models. One such effect, which is not captured by the phenomenological theory itself, is the appearance of non-analytic terms in the expansions of various thermodynamic quantities such as heat-capacity and susceptibility with respect to an external magnetic field, temperature, or momentum. Such non-analyticities may have a large impact on the phase diagram of, for example, itinerant electrons near a ferromagnetic quantum phase transition. Inspired by this we consider a system of interacting electrons in a weak external magnetic field within Fermi liquid theory. For this system we calculate various quasi-particle properties such as the quasi-particle residue, momentum-renormalization factor, and a renormalization factor which relates to the self-energy on the Fermi surface. From these renormalization factors we then extract physical quantities such as the renormalized mass and renormalized electron Lande g-factor. By calculating the renormalization factors within second order perturbation theory numerically and analytically, using a phase-space decomposition, we show that all renormalization factors acquire a non-analytic term proportional to the absolute value of the magnetic field. We moreover explicitly calculate the prefactors of these terms and find that they are all universal and determined by low-energy scattering processes which we classify. We also consider the non-analytic contributions to the same renormalization factors at finite temperatures and for finite external frequencies and discuss possible experimental ways of measuring the prefactors. Specifically we find that the tunnelling density of states and the conductivity acquire a non-analytic dependence on magnetic field (and temperature) coming from the momentum-renormalization factor. For the latter we discuss how this relates to previous works which show the existence of non-analyticities in the conductivity at first order in the interaction.