## 52B20 Lattice polytopes (including relations with commutative algebra and algebraic geometry) [See also 06A11, 13F20, 13Hxx]

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A convex body is unconditional if it is symmetric with respect to reflections in all coordinate hyperplanes. We investigate unconditional lattice polytopes with respect to geometric, combinatorial, and algebraic properties. In particular, we characterize unconditional reflexive polytopes in terms of perfect graphs. As a prime example, we study the signed Birkhoff polytope. Moreover, we derive constructions for Gale-dual pairs of polytopes and we explicitly describe GrÃ¶bner bases for unconditional reflexive polytopes coming from partially ordered sets.

Tropical geometry is the geometry of the tropical semiring \[\mathbb{T}:=(\mathbb{R}\cup\{\infty\},\min,+).\] Classical algebraic structures correspond to tropical structures. If $I\lhd K[x_1,\ldots,x_n]$ is an ideal in a polynomial ring over a field $K$ with valuation $v$, then the classical algebraic variety correspond to the tropical variety $T(I)$. It is the set of all points $w$, such that the minimum $\min\{v(c_\alpha)+w\cdot\alpha\}$ is achieved twice for all $f=\sum_\alpha c_\alpha x^\alpha\in I$. So tropical geometry relates algebraic geometric problems with discrete geometric problems. In this thesis we obtain a tropical version of the Eisenbud-Evans Theorem which states that every algebraic variety in $\mathbb{R}^n$ is the intersection of $n$ hypersurfaces. We find out that in the tropical setting every tropical variety $T(I)$ can be written as an intersection of only $(n+1)$ tropical hypersurfaces. So we get a finite generating system of $I$ such that the corresponding tropical hypersurfaces intersect to the tropical variety, a so-called tropical basis. Let $I \lhd K[x_1,\ldots,x_n]$ be a prime ideal generated by the polynomials $f_1, \ldots, f_r$. Then there exist $g_0,\ldots,g_{n} \in I$ such that \[ T(I) \ = \ \bigcap_{i=0}^{n}T(g_i)\] and thus $\mathcal{G} := \{f_1, \ldots, f_r, g_0, \ldots, g_{n}\}$ is a tropical basis for $I$ of cardinality $r+n+1$. Tropical bases are discussed by Bogart, Jensen, Speyer, Sturmfels and Thomas where it is shown that tropical bases of linear polynomials of a linear ideal have to be very large. We do not restrict the tropical basis to consist of linear polynomials and therefore we get a shorter tropical basis. But the degrees of our polynomials can be very large. The main ingredient to get a short tropical basis is the use of projections, in particular geometrically regular projections. Together with the fact that preimages of projections of tropical varieties are themselves tropical varieties of a certain elimination ideal we get the desired result. Let $I \lhd K[x_1, \ldots, x_n]$ be an $m$-dimensional prime ideal and $\pi : \mathbb{R}^n \to \mathbb{R}^{m+1}$ be a rational projection. Then $\pi^{-1}(\pi(T(I)))$ is a tropical variety, namely \[ \pi^{-1}(\pi(T(I))) \ = \ T(J \cap K[x_1, \ldots, x_n]) \,\] Here $J$ is an ideal in $K[x_1,\ldots,x_n,\lambda_1,\ldots,\lambda_{n-m-1}]$ derived from the ideal $I$. We show that this elimination ideal is a principal ideal which yields a polynomial in our tropical basis. The advantage of our method is that we find our polynomials by projections and therefore we can use the results of Gelfand, Kapranov and Zelevinsky , of Esterov and Khovanskii , and of Sturmfels, Tevelev and Yu. With mixed fiber polytopes we get the structure and combinatorics of the image of a tropical variety and therefore the structure of the polynomials in our tropical basis. Let $I=\lhd K[x_1,\ldots,x_n]$ an $m$-dimensional ideal, generated by generic polynomials $f_1,\ldots, f_{n-m}$, $\pi:\mathbb{R}^n\to\mathbb{R}^{m+1}$ a projection and $\psi$ a projection presented by a matrix with a rowspace equal to the kernel of $\pi$. Then up to affine isomorphisms, the cells of the dual subdivision of $\pi^{-1} \pi T(I)$ are of the form \[ \sum_{i=1}^p \Sigma_{\psi} (C_{i1}^{\vee}, \ldots, C_{i{k}}^{\vee}) \] for some $p\in\mathbb{N}$ and faces $F_1, \ldots, F_p$ of $T(f_1)\cap\ldots\cap T(f_k)$ and the dual cell of $F_i\subseteq U = T(f_1)\cup\ldots\cup T(f_k)$ is given by $F_i^\vee=C_{i1}^{\vee}+ \ldots+ C_{ik}^{\vee}$ with faces $C_{i1}, \ldots, C_{i k}$ of $T(f_1), \ldots, T(f_{k})$. In case that we project a tropical curve we want to find the number of $(n-1)$-cells of the above form with $p>1$, i.e. the cells which are dual to vertices of $\pi(T(I))$ which are the intersection of the images of two non-adjacent $1$-cells of $T(I)$. Vertices of this type are called selfintersection points. We show that there exist a tropcal line $L_n\subset\mathbb{R}^n$ and a projection $\pi:\mathbb{R}^n\to\mathbb{R}^2$, such that $L_n$ has $\sum_{i=1}^{n-2}i$ selfintersection points. Furthermore we find tropical curves $\mathcal{C}\subset\mathbb{R}^n$, which are transversal intersections of $n-1$ tropical hypersurfaces of degrees $d_1,\ldots,d_{n-1}$ and a projection $\pi:\mathbb{R}^n\to\mathbb{R}^2$, such that $\mathcal{C}$ has at least $(d_1\cdot\ldots\cdot d_{n-1})^2\cdot \sum_{i=1}^{n-2}i) $ selfintersection points. A caterpillar is a certain simple type of a tropical line and for this type we show that it can have at most $\sum_{i=1}^{n-2}i$ selfintersection points.