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Quantum discontinuity fixed point and renormalization group flow of the Sachdev-Ye-Kitaev model
(2021)

We determine the global renormalization group (RG) flow of the Sachdev-Ye-Kitaev (SYK) model. From a controlled truncation of the infinite hierarchy of the exact functional RG flow equations, we identify several fixed points. Apart from a stable fixed point, associated with the celebrated non-Fermi liquid state of the model, we find another stable fixed point related to an integer-valence state. These stable fixed points are separated by a discontinuity fixed point with one relevant direction, describing a quantum first-order transition. Most notably, the fermionic spectrum continues to be quantum critical even at the discontinuity fixed point. This rules out a description of the transition in terms of a local effective Ising variable as is established for classical transitions. We propose an entangled quantum state at phase coexistence as a possible physical origin of this critical behavior.

We explore the tilted-pulse-front excitation technique to control the superradiant emission of terahertz (THz) pulses from large-area photonconductive semiconductor switches. Two cases are studied. First, a photoconductive antenna emitting into free space, where the propagation direction of the optically generated THz beam is controlled by the choice of the tilt angle of the pump pulse front. Second, a THz waveguide structure with an integrated photoconductive window for the generation of THz radiation, where the injection of the THz radiation into a waveguide mode is optimized by the pulse front tilt. By providing long interaction lengths, such a waveguide-based optical-pump/THz-probe set-up may provide a new platform for the study of diverse short-lived optically induced excitations.

This article demonstrates the use of guided elastic waves (GEW) for multiple-in and multiple-out (MIMO) data communication in the framework of a structural health monitoring (SHM) system. Therefore, miniaturized low-voltage communication nodes have been developed. They are arranged in a spatially distributed and permanently installed network. Wireless exchange of encoded information across a metallic plate and a stiffened carbon-fiber reinforced plastics (CFRP) structure is investigated. A combination of square-wave excitation sequences and frequency-division multiplexing (FDM) is explored for parallel communication with multiple nodes. Moreover, the impact of the excitation-sequence length on the reliability of information transmission is studied in view of future energy-aware application scenarios. The presented system achieves in both studied structures error-free transmission at a data rate of 0.17 kbps (per carrier frequency) with a power consumption of 224 mW.

Predicting the cumulative medical load of COVID-19 outbreaks after the peak in daily fatalities
(2021)

The distinct ways the COVID-19 pandemic has been unfolding in different countries and regions suggest that local societal and governmental structures play an important role not only for the baseline infection rate, but also for short and long-term reactions to the outbreak. We propose to investigate the question of how societies as a whole, and governments in particular, modulate the dynamics of a novel epidemic using a generalization of the SIR model, the reactive SIR (short-term and long-term reaction) model. We posit that containment measures are equivalent to a feedback between the status of the outbreak and the reproduction factor. Short-term reaction to an outbreak corresponds in this framework to the reaction of governments and individuals to daily cases and fatalities. The reaction to the cumulative number of cases or deaths, and not to daily numbers, is captured in contrast by long-term reaction. We present the exact phase space solution of the controlled SIR model and use it to quantify containment policies for a large number of countries in terms of short and long-term control parameters. We find increased contributions of long-term control for countries and regions in which the outbreak was suppressed substantially together with a strong correlation between the strength of societal and governmental policies and the time needed to contain COVID-19 outbreaks. Furthermore, for numerous countries and regions we identified a predictive relation between the number of fatalities within a fixed period before and after the peak of daily fatality counts, which allows to gauge the cumulative medical load of COVID-19 outbreaks that should be expected after the peak. These results suggest that the proposed model is applicable not only for understanding the outbreak dynamics, but also for predicting future cases and fatalities once the effectiveness of outbreak suppression policies is established with sufficient certainty. Finally, we provide a web app (https://itp.uni-frankfurt.de/covid-19/) with tools for visualising the phase space representation of real-world COVID-19 data and for exporting the preprocessed data for further analysis.

Based on recent perturbative and non-perturbative lattice calculations with almost quark flavors and the thermal contributions from photons, neutrinos, leptons, electroweak particles, and scalar Higgs bosons, various thermodynamic quantities, at vanishing net-baryon densities, such as pressure, energy density, bulk viscosity, relaxation time, and temperature have been calculated up to the TeV-scale, i.e., covering hadron, QGP, and electroweak (EW) phases in the early Universe. This remarkable progress motivated the present study to determine the possible influence of the bulk viscosity in the early Universe and to understand how this would vary from epoch to epoch. We have taken into consideration first- (Eckart) and second-order (Israel–Stewart) theories for the relativistic cosmic fluid and integrated viscous equations of state in Friedmann equations. Nonlinear nonhomogeneous differential equations are obtained as analytical solutions. For Israel–Stewart, the differential equations are very sophisticated to be solved. They are outlined here as road-maps for future studies. For Eckart theory, the only possible solution is the functionality, H(a(t)), where H(t) is the Hubble parameter and a(t) is the scale factor, but none of them so far could to be directly expressed in terms of either proper or cosmic time t. For Eckart-type viscous background, especially at finite cosmological constant, non-singular H(t) and a(t) are obtained, where H(t) diverges for QCD/EW and asymptotic EoS. For non-viscous background, the dependence of H(a(t)) is monotonic. The same conclusion can be drawn for an ideal EoS. We also conclude that the rate of decreasing H(a(t)) with increasing a(t) varies from epoch to epoch, at vanishing and finite cosmological constant. These results obviously help in improving our understanding of the nucleosynthesis and the cosmological large-scale structure.

Recurrent cortical networks provide reservoirs of states that are thought to play a crucial role for sequential information processing in the brain. However, classical reservoir computing requires manual adjustments of global network parameters, particularly of the spectral radius of the recurrent synaptic weight matrix. It is hence not clear if the spectral radius is accessible to biological neural networks. Using random matrix theory, we show that the spectral radius is related to local properties of the neuronal dynamics whenever the overall dynamical state is only weakly correlated. This result allows us to introduce two local homeostatic synaptic scaling mechanisms, termed flow control and variance control, that implicitly drive the spectral radius toward the desired value. For both mechanisms the spectral radius is autonomously adapted while the network receives and processes inputs under working conditions. We demonstrate the effectiveness of the two adaptation mechanisms under different external input protocols. Moreover, we evaluated the network performance after adaptation by training the network to perform a time-delayed XOR operation on binary sequences. As our main result, we found that flow control reliably regulates the spectral radius for different types of input statistics. Precise tuning is however negatively affected when interneural correlations are substantial. Furthermore, we found a consistent task performance over a wide range of input strengths/variances. Variance control did however not yield the desired spectral radii with the same precision, being less consistent across different input strengths. Given the effectiveness and remarkably simple mathematical form of flow control, we conclude that self-consistent local control of the spectral radius via an implicit adaptation scheme is an interesting and biological plausible alternative to conventional methods using set point homeostatic feedback controls of neural firing.

Scanning Hall probe microscopy is attractive for minimally invasive characterization of magnetic thin films and nanostructures by measurement of the emanating magnetic stray field. Established sensor probes operating at room temperature employ highly miniaturized spin-valve elements or semimetals, such as Bi. As the sensor layer structures are fabricated by patterning of planar thin films, their adaption to custom-made sensor probe geometries is highly challenging or impossible. Here we show how nanogranular ferromagnetic Hall devices fabricated by the direct-write method of focused electron beam induced deposition (FEBID) can be tailor-made for any given probe geometry. Furthermore, we demonstrate how the magnetic stray field sensitivity can be optimized in situ directly after direct-write nanofabrication of the sensor element. First proof-of-principle results on the use of this novel scanning Hall sensor are shown.

Human societies are characterized by three constituent features, besides others. (A) Options, as for jobs and societal positions, differ with respect to their associated monetary and non-monetary payoffs. (B) Competition leads to reduced payoffs when individuals compete for the same option as others. (C) People care about how they are doing relatively to others. The latter trait –the propensity to compare one’s own success with that of others– expresses itself as envy. It is shown that the combination of (A)–(C) leads to spontaneous class stratification. Societies of agents split endogenously into two social classes, an upper and a lower class, when envy becomes relevant. A comprehensive analysis of the Nash equilibria characterizing a basic reference game is presented. Class separation is due to the condensation of the strategies of lower-class agents, which play an identical mixed strategy. Upper-class agents do not condense, following individualist pure strategies. The model and results are size-consistent, holding for arbitrary large numbers of agents and options. Analytic results are confirmed by extensive numerical simulations. An analogy to interacting confined classical particles is discussed.

This work presents, to our knowledge, the ﬁrst completely passive imaging with human-body-emitted radiation in the lower THz frequency range using a broadband uncooled detector. The sensor consists of a Si CMOS ﬁeld-effect transistor with an integrated log-spiral THz antenna. This THz sensor was measured to exhibit a rather ﬂat responsivity over the 0.1–1.5-THz frequency range, with values of the optical responsivity and noise-equivalent power of around 40 mA/W and 42 pW/√Hz, respectively. These values are in good agreement with simulations which suggest an even broader ﬂat responsivity range exceeding 2.0 THz. The successful imaging demonstratestheimpressivethermalsensitivitywhichcanbeachievedwithsuchasensor. Recording of a 2.3×7.5-cm2-sized image of the ﬁngers of a hand with a pixel size of 1 mm2 at a scanning speed of 1 mm/s leads to a signal-to-noise ratio of 2 and a noise-equivalent temperature difference of 4.4 K. This approach shows a new sensing approach with ﬁeld-effect transistors as THz detectors which are usually used for active THz detection.

Radar technology in the millimeter-wave frequency band offers many interesting features for wind park surveillance, such as structural monitoring of rotor blades or the detection of bats and birds in the vicinity of wind turbines (WTs). Currently, the majority of WTs are affected by shutdown algorithms to minimize animal fatalities via direct collision with the rotor blades or barotrauma effects. The presence of rain is an important parameter in the definition of those algorithms together with wind speed, temperature, time of the day, and season of the year. A Ka-band frequency-modulated continuous-wave radar (33.4-36.0 GHz) installed at the tower of a 2-MW WT was used during a field study. We have observed characteristic rain-induced patterns, based on the range-Doppler algorithm. To better understand those signatures, we have developed a laboratory experiment and implemented a numerical modeling framework. Experimental and numerical results for rain detection and classification are presented and discussed here. Based on this article, a bat- and bird-friendly adaptive WT control can be developed for improved WT efficiency in periods of rain and, at the same time, reduced animal mortality.