## 24.75.+i General properties of fission

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For cold (neutronless) fission we consider an analytical model of quantum tunneling with dissipation through a barrier U(q) evaluated with a M3Y nucleon-nucleon force. We calculate the tunneling spectrum, i.e., the fission rate as a function of the total kinetic energy of the fragments. The theoretical results are compared with the experimental data obtained for the fine structure of two cold fission modes of 252Cf: 148Ba+104Mo and 146Ba+106Mo. Taking into account the dissipative coupling of the potential function U(q) and of the momentum p with all the other neglected coordinates, we obtain a remarkable agreement with the experimental data. We conclude that the cold fission process is a spontaneous decay with a spectrum determined by the shape of the barrier and an amplitude depending on the strength of the dissipative coupling.

Potential energy surfaces are calculated by using the most advanced asymmetric two-center shell model allowing to obtain shell and pairing corrections which are added to the Yukawa-plus-exponential model deformation energy. Shell effects are of crucial importance for experimental observation of spontaneous disintegration by heavy ion emission. Results for 222Ra, 232U, 236Pu and 242Cm illustrate the main ideas and show for the first time for a cluster emitter a potential barrier obtained by using the macroscopic-microscopic method.

The wave function of a spheroidal harmonic oscillator without spin-orbit interaction is expressed in terms of associated Laguerre and Hermite polynomials. The pairing gap and Fermi energy are found by solving the BCS system of two equations. Analytical relationships for the matrix elements of inertia are obtained function of the main quantum numbers and potential derivative. They may be used to test complex computer codes one should develop in a realistic approach of the fission dynamics. The results given for the 240 Pu nucleus are compared with a hydrodynamical model. The importance of taking into account the correction term due to the variation of the occupation number is stressed.

Complex fission phenomena
(2004)

Complex fission phenomena are studied in a unified way. Very general reflection asymmetrical equilibrium (saddle point) nuclear shapes are obtained by solving an integro-differential equation without being necessary to specify a certain parametrization. The mass asymmetry in binary cold fission of Th and U isotopes is explained as the result of adding a phenomenological shell correction to the liquid drop model deformation energy. Applications to binary, ternary, and quaternary fission are outlined.

A very general saddle point nuclear shape may be found as a solution of an integro-differential equation without giving apriori any shape parametrization. By introducing phenomenological shell corrections one obtains minima of deformation energy for binary fission of parent nuclei at a finite (non-zero) mass asymmetry. Results are presented for reflection asymmetric saddle point shapes of thorium and uranium even-mass isotopes with A=226-238 and A=230-238 respectively.