## 75.30.Ds Spin waves (for spin-wave resonance, see 76.50.+g)

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- Doctoral Thesis (3)

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- Heisenberg-Modell (3)
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- Physik (3)

The phenomenon of magnetism is a pure quantum effect and has been studied since the beginning of civilization. The practical use of magnetic materials for technical purposes was well established in the 19th century; still nowadays there is no lack of new high-tech applications based on magnetism for example in information technology to store and process data. This thesis does not focus on the development of new applications of magnetism in technology, nor enhancement of known fields of application. Instead, the intention is to use a quantum theory of magnetism for obtaining new insights on physical effects that accompany the phenomenon of magnetism. Therefore three different model systems, each of which are believed to describe a class of real compounds, are considered. Starting from the idea that magnetism can be understood by use of the so-called Heisenberg model that microscopically characterizes the interaction between localized magnetic moments, we restrict ourselves to the case where a long-range magnetic order is present. In order to deduce consequences resulting from this microscopic picture we use the spin-wave theory that is introduced in the first chapter. Central objects of this theory are the magnons which are elementary quantum excitations in ordered magnets. An application of these mathematical techniques to a model that describes an antiferromagnet in an external magnetic field is presented in the second chapter. Quantities like the spin-wave velocity and the damping of magnons are calculated using a Hermitian operator approach in the framework of spin-wave theory. A strong renormalization of the magnetic excitations arises because the symmetry of the system is reduced due to the external magnetic field. In the second model system, that describes thin films of a ferromagnet, concepts of classical physics meet quantum physics: The magnetic dipole-dipole interaction that is also known in everyday life from the magnetic forces between magnets and was initially formulated in the theory of electromagnetism, is included in the microscopic model. Having a special compound in mind where the magnetic excitations are directly accessible in experiments, the energy dispersions of magnon modes in thin-film ferromagnets are deduced. Our approach is essentially a basis for further investigations beyond this thesis to describe strong correlations and condensation of magnons. A recent realization of data processing devices with spin waves puts the understanding of physical processes in these ferromagnetic films in the focus of upcoming research. The third model system brings in the so-called frustration where the interactions between the spins are such that the total energy cannot be minimized by an appropriate alignment of the magnetic moments in the classical picture. In the simplest case this appears because the antiferromagnetically coupled spins are located on a triangular lattice. This situation will lead to strong quantum fluctuations which make this model system interesting. Finally the overall symmetry is reduced by inclusion of spin anisotropies and an external magnetic field. Instead of focusing on the properties of the magnetic excitations, the effect of the magnetic field on the properties of the lattice vibrations is subject to the investigation. This is interesting because the characteristics of lattice vibrations can be measured experimentally using the supersonic technique.

The focus of this thesis is on quantum Heisenberg magnets in low dimensions. We modify the method of spin-wave theory in order to address two distinct issues. In the first part we develop a variant of spin-wave theory for low-dimensional systems, where thermodynamic observables are calculated from the Gibbs free energy for fixed order parameter. We are able to go beyond linear spin-wave theory and systematically calculate two-loop correction to the free energy. We use our method to determine the low-temperature physics of Heisenberg ferromagnets in one, two and three spatial dimensions. In the second part of the thesis, we treat a two-dimensional Heisenberg antiferromagnet in the presence of a uniform external magnetic field. We determine the low-temperature behavior of the magnetization curve within spin-wave theory by taking the absence of the spontaneous staggered magnetization into account. Additionally, we perform quantum Monte Carlo simulations and subsequently show that numerical findings are qualitatively comparable to spin-wave results. Finally, we apply our method to an experimentally motivated case of the distorted honeycomb lattice in order to determine the strength of the exchange interactions.

The challenging intricacies of strongly correlated electronic systems necessitate the use of a variety of complementary theoretical approaches. In this thesis, we analyze two distinct aspects of strong correlations and develop further or adapt suitable techniques. First, we discuss magnetization transport in insulating one-dimensional spin rings described by a Heisenberg model in an inhomogeneous magnetic field. Due to quantum mechanical interference of magnon wave functions, persistent magnetization currents are shown to exist in such a geometry in analogy to persistent charge currents in mesoscopic normal metal rings. The second, longer part is dedicated to a new aspect of the functional renormalization group technique for fermions. By decoupling the interaction via a Hubbard-Stratonovich transformation, we introduce collective bosonic variables from the beginning and analyze the hierarchy of flow equations for the coupled field theory. The possibility of a cutoff in the momentum transfer of the interaction leads to a new flow scheme, which we will refer to as the interaction cutoff scheme. Within this approach, Ward identities for forward scattering problems are conserved at every instant of the flow leading to an exact solution of a whole hierarchy of flow equations. This way the known exact result for the single-particle Green's function of the Tomonaga-Luttinger model is recovered.