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- The QCD phase diagram at low baryon density from lattice simulations (2010)
- The QCD phase diagram as a function of temperature, T, and chemical potential for baryon number, mB, is still unknown today, due to the sign problem, which prohibits direct Monte Carlo simulations for non-vanishing baryon density. Investigations in models sharing chiral symmetry with QCD predict a phase diagram, in which the transition corresponds to a smooth crossover at zero density, but which is strengthened by chemical potential to turn into a first order transition beyond some second order critical point. This contribution reviews the lattice evidence in favour and against the existence of a critical point.

- Constraints for the QCD phase diagram from imaginary chemical potential (2010)
- We present unambiguous evidence from lattice simulations of Nf = 3 QCD for two tricritical points in the (T;m) phase diagram at fixed imaginary m=T = ip=3 mod. 2p=3, one in the light and one in the heavy quark regime. Together with similar results in the literature for Nf = 2 this implies the existence of a chiral and of a deconfinement tricritical line at those values of imaginary chemical potentials. These tricritical lines represent the boundaries of the analytically continued chiral and deconfinement critical surfaces, respectively, which delimit the parameter space with first order phase transitions. It is demonstrated that the shape of the deconfinement critical surface is dictated by tricritical scaling and implies the weakening of the deconfinement transition with real chemical potential. A qualitatively similar effect holds for the chiral critical surface.

- Prevalence of dosing errors in elderly patients with impaired renal function: a survey in ambulatory patients [meeting abstract] (2010)
- Meeting Abstract : Gesellschaft für Arzneimittelanwendungsforschung und Arzneimittelepidemiologie e.V. (GAA). 17. Jahrestagung der Gesellschaft für Arzneimittelanwendungsforschung und Arzneimittelepidemiologie. Osnabrück, 25.-26.11.2010. ntroduction: Several drugs require dose adjustment in patients with impaired renal function, which however, often goes undetected. Serum creatinine may be normal in patients while renal function is already reduced. The estimated GFR (eGFR) allows a more precise evaluation of the renal function. This study was carried out in a group practice for family medicine, in Frankfurt/ Main, Germany. The exploration aimed at investigating if patients with renal insufficiency were recognised and if their prescriptions were appropriate in terms of dose adjustment or contra-indications. Methods: In patients (>65yrs) with renal insufficiency (creatinine clearance <60 ml/min), their prescribed medication was retrospectively explored (Observation period 1.1.2008 to 1.4.2009). The Cockroft-Gault formula was used as estimate for the eGFR, using a creatinine value from the patient’s charts. In 90 patients, a second eGFR could be estimated from a second creatinine value obtained within 3-6 months. The recommended dose of each prescription in the SmPC (Fachinformation“) was compared to the dose that had been actually prescribed. Results: Out of 232 consecutively patients >65 yrs, 102 had an eGFR <60 ml/min, 16 of these had an eGFR <30 ml/min. The eGFR was closely correlated (r2=0.81) with an independent second eGFR. Out of these 102 patients, 48 had a serum creatinine level within the normal range. Renal adjustment was required in 263 of a total of 613 prescriptions. 72 prescriptions in a total of 45 patients were not appropriately adjusted (32) or prescribed despite a contraindication (40). For chronic prescriptions, metformin, ramipril, enalapril, HCTZ, and spironolactone accounted for 70% of inappropriate dosing; the magnitude of misdosing was 1.5 to 4 fold (median 2). 9 temporary prescriptions (of a total of 60 prescriptions) in 8 patients were not adjusted (cefuroxim, cefpodoxim, levofloxacin). We could not prove that patients with normal serum creatinine had a higher rate of inappropriate dosing than those with already elevated creatinine. Discussion and conclusion: In this GP practice, we have demonstrated a considerable prevalence of inappropriate dosing in patients with impaired renal function. It remains to be elucidated whether surveillance of appropriate dosing in renal impairment can be optimized e.g. with CPOE.

- Simulation in the call-by-need lambda-calculus with letrec (2010)
- This paper shows the equivalence of applicative similarity and contextual approximation, and hence also of bisimilarity and contextual equivalence, in the deterministic call-by-need lambda calculus with letrec. Bisimilarity simplifies equivalence proofs in the calculus and opens a way for more convenient correctness proofs for program transformations. Although this property may be a natural one to expect, to the best of our knowledge, this paper is the first one providing a proof. The proof technique is to transfer the contextual approximation into Abramsky’s lazy lambda calculus by a fully abstract and surjective translation. This also shows that the natural embedding of Abramsky’s lazy lambda calculus into the call-by-need lambda calculus with letrec is an isomorphism between the respective term-models. We show that the equivalence property proven in this paper transfers to a call-by-need letrec calculus developed by Ariola and Felleisen. 1998 ACM Subject Classification: F.4.2, F.3.2, F.3.3, F.4.1. Key words and phrases: semantics, contextual equivalence, bisimulation, lambda calculus, call-by-need, letrec.

- A demonstrator for the Micro-Vertex-Detector of the CBM experiment (2010)
- CMOS sensors are the most promising candidates for the Micro-Vertex-Detector (MVD) of the CBM experiment at GSI, as they provide an unprecedented compromise between spatial resolution, low material budget, adequate radiation tolerance and readout speed. To study the integration of these sensors into a detector module, a so-called MVD-demonstrator has been developed. The demonstrator and its in-beam performance will be presented and discussed in this work.

- The new p-process database of KADoNiS (2010)
- The KADoNiS (Karlsruhe Astrophysical Database of Nucleosynthesis in Stars) project is an online database (www.kadonis.org) for cross sections relevant to the s-process and the p-process. The first version was an updated sequel to the previous Bao et al. [1] compilations from 1987 and 2000 for (n; g) cross sections relevant to Big Bang and s-process nucleosynthesis. The first update, KADoNiS v0.2, was published in 2006 [2]. It contained mainly Maxwellian averaged (n; g) cross sections relevant to the s-process, and some experimental charged particle induced reaction relevant to the p-process. After that a second update was presented in 2009 [3]. Recently, we started to collect and review all existing experimental data relevant for p-process nucleosynthesis and to provide a user-friendly database based on the KADoNiS framework. The p-process part of the KADoNiS database is currently being extended and will include all available experimental data from (p; g), (p;n), (p;a), (a,g), (a;n) and (a; p) reactions in or close to the respective Gamow window.

- Forces between static-light mesons (2010)
- The isospin, spin and parity dependent potential of a pair of static-light mesons is computed using Wilson twisted mass lattice QCD with two flavors of degenerate dynamical quarks. From the results a simple rule can be deduced stating, which isospin, spin and parity combinations correspond to attractive and which to repulsive forces.

- The spectrum of static-light baryons in twisted mass lattice QCD (2010)
- We compute the static-light baryon spectrum with Nf = 2 flavors of sea quarks using Wilson twisted mass lattice QCD. As light valence quarks we consider quarks, which have the same mass as the sea quarks with corresponding pion masses in the range 340MeV<∼ mPS<∼ 525MeV, as well as partially quenched quarks, which have the mass of the physical s quark. We extract masses of states with isospin I = 0,1/2,1, with strangeness S = 0,−1,−2, with angular momentum of the light degrees of freedom j = 0,1 and with parity P = +,−. We present a preliminary extrapolation in the light u/d and an interpolation in the heavy b quark mass to the physical point and compare with available experimental results.