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- Soluble triggering receptor on myeloid cells-1 is expressed in the course of non-infectious inflammation after traumatic lung contusion: a prospective cohort study (2011)
- Introduction: The triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells-1 (TREM-1) is known to be expressed during bacterial infections. We investigated whether TREM-1 is also expressed in non-infectious inflammation following traumatic lung contusion. Methods: In a study population of 45 adult patients with multiple trauma and lung contusion, we obtained bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) (blind suctioning of 20 ml NaCl (0.9%) via jet catheter) and collected blood samples at two time points (16 hours and 40 hours) after trauma. Post hoc patients were assigned to one of four groups radiologically classified according to the severity of lung contusion based on the initial chest tomography. Concentration of soluble TREM-1 (sTREM-1) and bacterial growth were determined in the BAL. sTREM-1, IL-6, IL-10, lipopolysaccharide binding protein, procalcitonin, C-reactive protein and leukocyte count were assessed in blood samples. Pulmonary function was evaluated by the paO2/FiO2 ratio. Results: Three patients were excluded due to positive bacterial growth in the initial BAL. In 42 patients the severity of lung contusion correlated with the levels of sTREM-1 16 hours and 40 hours after trauma. sTREM-1 levels were significantly (P < 0.01) elevated in patients with severe contusion (2,184 pg/ml (620 to 4,000 pg/ml)) in comparison with patients with mild (339 pg/ml (135 to 731 pg/ml)) or no (217 pg/ml (97 to 701 pg/ml)) contusion 40 hours following trauma. At both time points the paO2/FiO2 ratio correlated negatively with sTREM-1 levels (Spearman correlation coefficient = -0.446, P < 0.01). Conclusions: sTREM-1 levels are elevated in the BAL of patients following pulmonary contusion. Furthermore, the levels of sTREM-1 in the BAL correlate well with both the severity of radiological pulmonary tissue damage and functional impairment of gas exchange (paO2/FiO2 ratio).
- Circulating leukotriene b4 identifies respiratory complications after trauma (2012)
- Background. Leukotriene B4 (LTB4), a proinflammatory lipid mediator correlates well with the acute phase of Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS). Therefore, LTB4-levels were investigated to determine whether they might be a useful clinical marker in predicting pulmonary complications (PC) in multiply traumatized patients. Methods: Plasma levels of LTB4 were determined in 100 patients on admission (ED) and for five consecutive days (daily). Twenty healthy volunteers served as control. LTB4-levels were measured by ELISA. Thirty patients developed PC (pneumonia, respiratory failure, acute lung injury (ALI), ARDS, pulmonary embolism) and 70 had no PC (ØPC). Results. LTB4-levels in the PC-group [127.8 pg/mL, IQR: 104–200pg/ml] were significantly higher compared to the ØPC-group on admission [95.6 pg/mL, IQR: 55–143 pg/mL] or control-group [58.4 pg/mL, IQR: 36–108 pg/mL]. LTB4 continuously declined to basal levels from day 1 to 5 without differences between the groups. The cutoff to predict PC was calculated at 109.6 pg/mL (72% specificity, 67% sensitivity). LTB4 was not influenced by overall or chest injury severity, age, gender or massive transfusion. Patients with PC received mechanical ventilation for a significantly longer period of time, and had prolonged intensive care unit and overall hospital stay. Conclusion. High LTB4-levels indicate risk for PC development in multiply traumatized patients
- Predictors of pulmonary failure following severe trauma: a trauma registry-based analysis (2013)
- Background: The incidence of pulmonary failure in trauma patients is considered to be influenced by several factors such as liver injury. We intended to assess the association of various potential predictors of pulmonary failure following thoracic trauma and liver injury. Methods: Records of 12,585 trauma patients documented in the TraumaRegister DGU® of the German Trauma Society were analyzed regarding the potential impact of concomitant liver injury on the incidence of pulmonary failure using uni- and multivariate analyses. Pulmonary failure was defined as pulmonary failure of ≥ 3 SOFA-score points for at least two days. Patients were subdivided according to their injury pattern into four groups: group 1: AIS thorax < 3; AIS liver < 3; group 2: AIS thorax ≥ 3; AIS liver < 3; group 3: AIS thorax < 3; AIS liver ≥ 3 and group 4: AIS thorax ≥ 3; AIS liver ≥ 3. Results: Overall, 2643 (21%) developed pulmonary failure, 12% (n= 642) in group 1, 26% (n= 697) in group 2, 16% (n= 30) in group 3, and 36% (n= 188) in group 4. Factors independently associated with pulmonary failure included relevant lung injury, pre-existing medical conditions (PMC), sex, transfusion of more than 10 units of packed red blood cells (PRBC), Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) ≤ 8, and the ISS. However, liver injury was not associated with an increased risk of pulmonary failure following severe trauma in our setting. Conclusions: Specific factors, but not liver injury, were associated with an increased risk of pulmonary failure following trauma. Trauma surgeons should be aware of these factors for optimized intensive care treatment.