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- Silicon as an intermediary between renewable energy and hydrogen (2004)
- Global reserves of coal, oil and natural gas are diminishing; global energy requirements however are dramatically increasing. Renewable energy sources lower the threat to the earth’s climate but are not able to meet the energy consumption in major urban areas. The opinion of many experts is that the future will be dominated by hydrogen. However, this gas is essentially totally manufactured from fossil fuels and is hence of limited abundance – not to mention the hazards involved in its utilisation. - A novel energy concept involving solar and thus carbon-independent hydrogen-based technology necessitates an intermediate storage vehicle for renewable energy. This future energy carrier should be simple to manufacture, be available to an unlimited degree or at least be suitable for recycling, be able to store and transport the energy without hazards, demonstrate a high energy density and release no carbon dioxide or other climatically detrimental substances. - Silicon successfully functions as a tailor-made intermediate linking decentrally operating renewable energy-generation technology with equally decentrally organised hydrogen-based infrastructure at any location of choice. In contrast to oil and in particular hydrogen, the transport and storage of silicon are free from potential hazards and require a simple infrastructure similar to that needed for coal.
- Synthesis and electrical characterization of intrinsic and in situ doped Si nanowires using a novel precursor (2012)
- Perchlorinated polysilanes were synthesized by polymerization of tetrachlorosilane under cold plasma conditions with hydrogen as a reducing agent. Subsequent selective cleavage of the resulting polymer yielded oligochlorosilanes SinCl2n+2 (n = 2, 3) from which the octachlorotrisilane (n = 3, Cl8Si3, OCTS) was used as a novel precursor for the synthesis of single-crystalline Si nanowires (NW) by the well-established vapor–liquid–solid (VLS) mechanism. By adding doping agents, specifically BBr3 and PCl3, we achieved highly p- and n-type doped Si-NWs by means of atmospheric-pressure chemical vapor deposition (APCVD). These as grown NWs were investigated by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), as well as electrical measurements of the NWs integrated in four-terminal and back-gated MOSFET modules. The intrinsic NWs appeared to be highly crystalline, with a preferred growth direction of  and a specific resistivity of ρ = 6 kΩ·cm. The doped NWs appeared to be  oriented with a specific resistivity of ρ = 198 mΩ·cm for p-type Si-NWs and ρ = 2.7 mΩ·cm for n-doped Si-NWs, revealing excellent dopant activation.
- Directed deposition of silicon nanowires using neopentasilane as precursor and gold as catalyst (2012)
- In this work the applicability of neopentasilane (Si(SiH3)4) as a precursor for the formation of silicon nanowires by using gold nanoparticles as a catalyst has been explored. The growth proceeds via the formation of liquid gold/silicon alloy droplets, which excrete the silicon nanowires upon continued decomposition of the precursor. This mechanism determines the diameter of the Si nanowires. Different sources for the gold nanoparticles have been tested: the spontaneous dewetting of gold films, thermally annealed gold films, deposition of preformed gold nanoparticles, and the use of “liquid bright gold”, a material historically used for the gilding of porcelain and glass. The latter does not only form gold nanoparticles when deposited as a thin film and thermally annealed, but can also be patterned by using UV irradiation, providing access to laterally structured layers of silicon nanowires.
- N-(2,6-Diisopropylphenyl)formamide toluene 0.33-solvate (2012)
- The crystal packing of the title compound, C13H19NO·0.33C7H8, shows a channel at , which contains grossly disordered toluene solvent molecules. The angle between the benzene ring and the mean plane of the formamide group is 71.1 (1)°. The amide groups of neighbouring molecules are connected by N—H(...)O hydrogen bonds, forming 21 helical chains propagating along . Molecules are also connected by weak intermolecular C—H(...)O hydrogen bonds, forming 61 helices.
- 1,3-Bis(2,6-diisopropyl-phen-yl)-1H-imidazol-3-ium bromide dichloromethane disolvate (2012)
- In the title compound, C27H37N2 +·Br−·2CH2Cl2, both the cation and the anion are located on a crystallographic mirror plane. Both of the dichloromethane solvent molecules show a disorder across a mirror plane over two equally occupied positions. In the crystal, the cations are connnected to the bromide ions via C—H[cdots, three dots, centered]Br hydrogen bonds.
- 1,3-Bis(2,6-diisopropyl-phen-yl)-1H-imidazol-3-ium chloride dichloromethane disolvate (2012)
- In the title compound, C27H37N2 +·Cl−·2CH2Cl2, the cation and the anion are each located on a crystallographic mirror plane. Both of the dichloromethane solvent molecules show a disorder across a mirror plane over two equally occupied positions. Additionally, one isopropyl group is also disordered. In the crystal, the cations are connected to the chloride ions via C—H[cdots, three dots, centered]Cl hydrogen bonds.