Year of publication
- Wechselwirkung des Cytochrom-bc1-Komplexes aus Saccharomyces cerevisiae mit seinen Substraten sowie mit der Cytochrom-c-Oxidase (2004)
- The cytochrome bc1 complex or ubiquinol:cytochrome c oxidoreductase (QCR) catalyses electron transfer from ubiquinol to cytochrome c in respiration and photosynthesis coupled to a vectorial proton transport across the membrane, in which the enzyme resides. In both bacteria and eukaryotic organisms, QCR participates in supramolecular assembly of membrane proteins that comprise the respiratory or photosynthetic chain. In the present work, proton transfer pathways, substrate binding and the supramolecular assembly of the respiratory chain in yeast were probed by structure-based site-directed mutagenesis and characterization of the variants. Both active sites centre P, the place of quinol oxidation, and centre N, where quinone reduction takes place, lack direct access to the bulk solvent necessary for proton release and uptake. Based on the X-ray structure, proton transfer pathways were postulated. Analysis at centre P showed, that E272 and Y132 of cytochrome b are important for QCR catalysis as indicated by increased superoxide production and lowered Cyc1p reductase activity in these variants. Pre-steady state heme reduction kinetics in combination with stigmatellin resistance indicated that charge and length of the side chain at position 272 are crucial for efficient docking of the ISP to form the enzyme substrate complex and for electron bifurcation at centre P. Variants of Y312 and F129, both residues of cytochrome b, showed an increased Km indicating participation of these residues in coordination of ubiquinol or the possible intermediate semiquinone anion radical. F129 proved to be crucial for a functional Q-cycle as indicated by respiratory negative growth phenotype and a lowered H+/e- stoichiometry of F129 variants. At centre N, the postulated CL/K and E/R proton transfer pathways are located at opposite sites of the bound ubiquinone. Variants in the surface residues R218 (cytochrome b) and E52 (Qcr7) of the E/R pathway and E82 (Qcr7) of the CL/K pathway showed instability upon purification indicating an important role of these residues for QCR integrity. The slowed down centre N reduction kinetics in H85 (CL/K), R218 and N208 (both E/R) variant was attributed to a destabilised semiquinone anion consistent with the observed decreased sensitivity towards the site-specific inhibitor antimycin and an increased Km. Variants of residues of both pathway, E82Q and R218M, exhibited a decreased H+/e- stoichiometry indicating a crucial role of both residue for maintaining a working Q-cycle and supporting the proposed protonation of the substrate via the Cl/K and the E/R pathway. Long-range interaction between centre N and centre P were observed by altered reduction kinetics of the high potential chain and increased superoxide production in the centre N variants. The role of the cation-pi-interaction between F230 of Cyt1p and R19 of cytochrome c in binding of the redox carrier to QCR was analysed. In F230L hydrophobic interaction were partially lost as was deduced from the ionic strength dependence of Cyc1p reductase activity and Cycp1 binding, as detected by ionic strength sensitive Kd and Km for Cyc1p. The decreased enzymatic rate of F230W could be explained by a disturbed binding of Cyc1p to the variant enzyme. F230 may influence the heme mid point potential and thereby the electron transfer rate to Cyc1p. Reduction of Cobp via both centre P and centre N was disturbed suggesting an interaction between high and low potential chain. Supramolecular association between QCR and cytochrome c oxidase (COX) in yeast mitochondria was probed by affinity chromatography of a his-tagged QCR in the presence of the mild detergent digitonin. In comparison to purification with laurylmaltoside, the presence of both QCR and COX subunits was detected in the elution fractions by SDS-PAGE, Cyc1p reductase and TMPD oxidase activity assays and immunoblot analysis. The CL-dependent formation of the supercomplex between QCR and COX was analysed by replacement variants in the CL-binding site of QCR in CL containing and CL free environment. With an increasing number of replacements of the three lysines the CL-binding pocket supercomplex formation was not abolished, when CL is present as shown by BN-PAGE analysis. This was supported by the synergetic decrease in enzyme activity for both enzymes upon increased number of replacements. In the CL-free environment, no supracomplex formation was observed for a wildtype CL binding site. By replacements of two lysines in the CL-binding pocket, supercomplex formation could be recovered as revealed by BN-PAGE. This indicates, that CL may serve as a charge neutralizer for the lysines near the presumed interaction domain between complex III and complex IV. The obtained results for centre P provide new information of residues critical for stabilisation of ubiquinol and controlling electron short circuit reactions. The observations for centre N variants clearly support the proposed two proton transfer pathways and the role of the bound phospholipids in centre N kinetics. Variants in the Cyc1p binding site suggest a role for F230 both in Cyc1p binding and electron transfer. Clear interaction between the high and low potential chain in both Cyt1p and centre N variants strongly support long-range interactions in the complex. Studies on the supramolecular association of complex III and complex IV indicate a new role of Cl in stabilising a supracomplex.
- Regulation der Expression von Interleukin-2 und Apobec3G im Kontext der Infektion mit Immundefizienzviren (2004)
- Der T-Zell-Wachstumsfaktor Interleukin-2 (IL-2) wird von Antigen-stimulierten T-Zellen sezerniert und spielt eine wichtige Rolle bei der zellulären Immunantwort. Dabei tragen in aktivierten T-Zellen die MAPK-Signalwege, der Calcineurin/NF-AT-Signalweg und der NF-KB-Signalweg kooperativ zur IL-2-lnduktion bei. In den letzten Jahren wurden mehrere Hinweise gefunden, dass IL-2 möglicherweise bei der HIV- und SIV-Pathogenese eine Rolle spielt. Zwei Publikationen konnten bereits eine verstärkte IL-2-Sekretion HIV-1-infizierter T-Zellen nachweisen, die molekularen Mechanismen dieser IL-2-Induktion sind bisher allerdings kaum untersucht. In der vorliegenden Arbeit konnte gezeigt werden, dass das apathogene simiane Immundefizienzvirus der Afrikanischen Grünen Meerkatze (SIVagm3) in suboptimal stimulierten PBMC ebenfalls die Interleukin-2-Sekretion verstärken kann. In der humanen T-Zelllinie A3.01 wurde nach Transfektion des Volllängenplasmids des SIVagm3 eine bis zu 38-fach verstärkte transkriptionelle Aktivierung des IL-2-Promotors beobachtet. Die Untersuchung der beteiligten Signalwege zeigte, dass die MAP-Kinasen ERK, JNK/SAPK und p38 für die IL-2-Induktion durch SIVagm3 notwendig sind, während die Inhibition der Calcineurin-Aktivität durch das Immunsuppressivum Cyclosporin A keinen Einfluss hatte. In Übereinstimmung mit diesem Ergebnis zeigte die Analyse der Transkriptionsfaktorbindungsstellen des IL-2-Promotors keine Aktivierung der NF-AT-kontrollierten Genexpression durch SIVagm3, womit zum ersten Mal ein Calcineurin/NF-AT-unabhängiger Weg der IL-2-Induktion beschrieben wurde. Dagegen erhöhte SIVagm3 die transkriptionelle Aktivität des NF-KB-responsiven Elements und die Aktivität des CD28/AP-1-responsiven Elements, die auch bei der klassischen T-Zellaktivierung eine Rolle spielen. Eine Aktivierung der CD28/AP-1-kontrollierten Genexpression konnte auch durch Expression des viralen Transaktivator-Proteins Tat induziert werden, das in stimulierten Zellen in der Lage war, die IL-2-Expression zu verstärken. Die Beschränkung dieser Tat-Funktion auf stimulierte Zellen konnte aber nicht auf eine Phosphorylierung von SIVagm3-Tat durch die MAP-Kinasen ERK, JNK/SAPK oder p38 zurückgeführt werden. Weitere Analysen zeigten dagegen, dass SIVagm3-Tat durch die Cyclin-abhängige Proteinkinase 9 (CDK9) phosphoryliert wird, die mit Tat koimmunpräzipitiert. Darüberhinaus konnte eine weitere nicht-identifizierte Tat-assoziierte Kinase nachgewiesen werden, die SIVagm3-Tat ebenfalls phosphorylieren kann. Aktuelle Publikationen zeigen, dass das lentivirale Vif-Protein die Degradation von Apobec3G im Proteasom induziert, da dieser zelluläre Faktor die Infektiosität der entstehenden Viruspartikel stark reduziert. Die antivirale Funktion von Apobec3G, die in der Deaminierung der Minusstrang-DNA während der reversen Transkription besteht, ist bereits weitgehend aufgeklärt, aber über die Regulation von Apobec3G ist noch wenig bekannt. In dieser Arbeit konnte gezeigt werden, dass die Aktivierung der mitogenen Raf/MEK/ERK-Signalkaskade durch den Phorbolester TPA zu einer verstärkten Apobec3G-Expression führt. Dieser Effekt konnte durch den Proteinkinase C (PKC)-Inhibitor Staurosporin und den MEK-Inhibitor U0126 inhibiert werden, wodurch gezeigt wurde, dass die Aktivität der MAP-Kinase ERK für die Verstärkung der Apobec3G-Expression notwendig ist. Eine Phosphorylierung von Apobec3G durch ERK wurde im Kinase-Assay jedoch nicht beobachtet. Dagegen konnte durch radioaktive in-vivo-Markierung nachgewiesen werden, dass es sich bei Apobec3G nicht um ein Phosphoprotein handelt. Neben den Untersuchungen zur Regulation von Apobec3G, konnten neue Erkenntnisse zu den Apobec3G/Vif-Interaktionen gewonnen werden. Durch Koimmunpräzipitationsstudien wurde die physikalische Interaktion von Vif und Apobec3G nachgewiesen. Zudem konnte gezeigt werden, dass in Gegenwart von Vif der Einbau von Apobec3G in die Viruspartikel gehemmt wird. Damit wurden erste Hinweise gefunden, dass Vif neben der Induktion des proteolytischen Abbaus von Apobec3G weitere Strategien anwendet, um die Inkorporation des antiviralen Faktors zu verhindern.
- Structure-function relationships in the cytochrome bc1 complex from Saccharomyces cerevisiae (2004)
- The cytochrome bc1 complex is a cornerstone in bioenergetic electron transfer chains, where it carries out tasks as diverse as respiration, photosynthesis, and nitrogen fixation. This homodimeric multisubunit membrane protein has been studied extensively for several decades and the enzyme mechanism is described with the modified protonmotive Q cycle. Still, the molecular and kinetic description of the catalytic cycle is not complete and questions remain regarding the bifurcation of electron transfer at the quinol oxidation (Qo) site, substrate occupancy, pathways of proton conduction, and the nature of the Rieske protein domain movement. We used competitive inhibitors to study the molecular architecture at the Qo site with X-ray crystallography. The structure of the enzyme with the substrate analog 5-n-heptyl-6-hydroxy-4,7-dioxobenzothiazole (HHDBT) bound at the Qo site was determined at 2.5 Å resolution. Spectroscopic studies showed that HHDBT is negatively charged when bound at the active site. Mechanistic interpretations from inhibitor binding are in line with single occupancy model for quinol oxidation and structural analysis supports the proposed proton transfer pathway. For functional insight into the enzyme mechanism, redox-sensitive protonation changes were studied by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The protein purification procedure was optimized for less delipidation and the isolated enzyme was more active. Furthermore, two new phospholipids were identified in the X-ray structures, including a cardiolipin. Strikingly, conserved lipid binding cavities were observed in structural comparison with homologous enzymes. The functional role of tightly bound phospholipids will be discussed. Finally, the Qo site is a target for various compounds of agricultural and pharmaceutical importance. Importantly, the X-ray structures permit detailed analysis of the molecular reasons for acquired resistance to and treatment failure of Qo site inhibitors, such as atovaquone, that is used to treat malaria and pneumonia, as discussed herein.
- Tumor-Targeting : Selektion konditional replizierender Retroviren durch gerichtete Evolution (2005)
- Die Entwicklung neuer Formen der Tumortherapie bleibt notwendig, solange die Heilung verschiedener solider metastasierender Tumore nicht möglich ist. Solch ein neuer Ansatz besteht in der Infektion des Tumors mit replikationskompetenten (retroviralen) Vektoren oder Viren. Um die Spezifität dieser Viren für die Tumorzellen zu erhöhen, wird in dieser Arbeit ein Konzept vorgestellt, dass die Tumor-spezifische Expression von Proteasen, im Besonderen von Matrix-Metalloproteasen (MMPs), zur Aktivierung des Maus Leukämievirus (MLV) ausnutzt (Protease-Targeting). Dazu wurde durch eine Blockierungsdomäne (CD40L) Nterminal vom infektionsvermittelnden MLV-Hüllprotein Env die Bindung an die Zelleintrittsrezeptoren verhindert. Eine Spaltstelle zwischen CD40L und Env ermöglicht die Entfernung der Blockierungsdomäne und damit die Aktivierung des Virus. Um eine Spaltstelle zu finden, die optimal auf das Proteasespektrum eines Tumors passt, wurde das zwischen CD40L und Env befindliche Linkerpeptid kombinatorisch diversifiziert und so eine Bibliothek von Retroviren erzeugt. Die Selektion dieser Bibliothek auf zwei unterschiedlichen Tumorlinien (HT1080, Fibrosarkom und U-87 MG, malignes Gliom) führte zur Anreicherung MMP-aktivierbarer Viren. Drei der mehr als 10 identifizierten Linkerpeptide (AKGLYK, PSGLYQ und PAGLHV) wurden im viralen Kontext näher charakterisiert. Für das Spaltmotiv PSGLYQ konnte MMP-2 als aktivierende Protease nachgewiesen werden. Für die Motive AKGLYK und PAGLHV erwies sich eine kummulative Spaltung durch eine Reihe von MMPs als wahrscheinlich. Um die Ausbreitung der Viren in Abhängigkeit der MMP-Expression zu zeigen, wurden verschiedene Zelllinien hinsichtlich ihrer Expression von MMP-2 und MMP-9 charakterisiert und in MMP-positive und MMP-negative Zelllinien eingeteilt. Durch Infektion dieser Zelllinien und anschließende Verfolgung der Virus-Ausbreitung konnte die konditionale Replikation der aktivierbaren Viren ausschließlich auf MMP-positiven Zellen nachgewiesen werden. Daher erreichten die Viren mit selektionierten Spaltmotiven im Gegensatz zum Parental- Virus, welches ein in der Literatur beschriebenes MMP-2-Spaltmotiv aus Kollagen (PLGLWA) präsentierte, die vollständige Infektion der Kulturen. Auch die Titer lagen etwa um das 1000fache höher. Die Replikationsgeschwindigkeit der aktivierbaren Viren mit AKGLYK und PSGLYQ Motiv erreichte annähernd die des unveränderten MLV, das Virus mit PAGLHV Motiv zeigte sogar eine identische Replikationskurve. In einem Tumor-Maus-Modell konnte die Ausbreitung der proteolytisch aktivierbaren Viren auch in der Umgebung eines soliden Tumors gezeigt werden. Sowohl nach Etablierung des Tumors aus zum Teil vorinfizierten Zellen, als auch nach Injektion von Viren in zuvor etablierte Tumore erfolgte sie für die selektionierten Viren genetisch stabil. Um die Verteilung der Viren im Organismus zu bestimmen, wurde ein Modell entwickelt, in dem ein vollständig infizierter Tumor als Virusquelle diente, und nach bestimmten Zeiträumen verschiedene Organe der Maus und ein zweiter aus uninfizierten Zellen etablierter Tumor per PCR auf Infektionen untersucht wurde. Hier zeigte sich, dass WT-MLV bis zu 20.000fach mehr Zellen in den Organen infizierte als die aktivierbaren Viren. Dagegen wurden Zellen in einem sekundären uninfiziert etablierten Tumor vom WT-MLV nur etwa 5fach besser infiziert als durch die aktivierbaren Viren. Das heißt, die selektionierten Viren erreichten ein hohes Maß an Tumortargeting. In der vorliegenden Arbeit wurden durch molekulare Evolution zum ersten Mal replizierende Retroviren hergestellt, die einen eingeschränkten und für Protease-positive Zellen spezifischen Tropismus aufwiesen. Die selektionierten Substrate glichen anderen, mit Hilfe von Peptid-Bibliotheken für MMPs identifizierten Motiven, jedoch konnten durch die Berücksichtigung des gesamten Proteasespektrums einer Zelllinie weitere Motive selektioniert werden, die durch bisherige Systeme nicht ermittelt werden konnten. Damit ergibt sich für die selektionierten MMP-aktivierbaren Viren durch die Kombination aus Targeting beim Zelleintritt und Replikation in der Targetzellpopulation, die für andere beschriebene Targetingsysteme nicht gegeben ist, eine echte Option für neue Wege in der Tumortherapie.
- Characterization of Aquifex aeolicus F1FO ATP synthase and its heterologous production in Escherichia coli (2013)
- This work presents a biochemical, functional and structural characterization of Aquifex aeolicus F1FO ATP synthase obtained using both a native form (AAF1FO) and a heterologous form (EAF1FO) of this enzyme. F1FO ATP synthases catalyze the synthesis of ATP from ADP and inorganic phosphate driven by ion motive forces across the membrane and therefore play a key cellular function. Because of their central role in supporting life, F1FO ATP synthases are ubiquitous and have been remarkably conserved throughout evolution. For their biological importance, F1FO ATP synthases have been extensively studied for many decades and many of them were characterized from both a functional and a structural standpoint. However, important properties of ATP synthases – specifically properties pertaining to their membrane embedded subunits – have yet to be determined and no structures are available to date for the intact enzyme complex. Therefore, F1FO ATP synthases are still a major focus of research worldwide. Our research group had previously reported an initial characterization of AAF1FO and had indicated that this enzyme presents unique features, i.e. a bent central stalk and a putatively heterodimeric peripheral stalk. Based on such a characterization, this enzyme revealed promising for structural and functional studies on ATP synthases and became the focus of this doctoral thesis. Two different lines of research were followed in this work. First, the characterization of AAF1FO was extended by bioinformatic, biochemical and enzymatic analyses. The work on AAF1FO led to the identification of a new detergent that maintains a higher homogeneity and integrity of the complex, namely the detergent trans-4-(trans-4’-propylcyclohexyl)cyclohexyl-α-D-maltoside (α-PCC). The characterization of AAF1FO in this new detergent showed that AAF1FO is a proton-dependent, not a sodium ion-dependent ATP synthase and that its ATP hydrolysis mechanism needs to be triggered and activated by high temperatures, possibly inducing a conformational switch in subunit γ. Moreover, this approach suggested that AAF1FO may present unusual features in its membrane subunits, i.e. short N-terminal segments in subunits a and c with implications for the membrane insertion mechanism of these subunits. Investigating on these unique features of A. aeolicus F1FO ATP synthase could not be done using A. aeolicus cells, because these require a harsh and dangerous environment for growth and they are inaccessible to genetic manipulations. Therefore, a second approach was pursued, in which an expression system was created to produce the enzyme in the heterologous host E. coli. This second approach was experimentally challenging, because A. aeolicus F1FO ATP synthase is a 500-kDa multimeric membrane enzyme with a complicated and still not entirely determined stoichiometry and because its encoding genes are scattered throughout A. aeolicus genome, rather than being organized in one single operon. However, an artificial operon suitable for expression was created in this work and led to the successful production of an active and fully assembled form of Aquifex aeolicus F1FO ATP synthase. Such artificial operon was created using a stepwise approach, in which we expressed and studied first individual subunits, then subcomplexes, and finally the entire F1FO ATP synthase complex. We confirmed experimentally that subunits b1 and b2 form a heterodimeric subcomplex in the E. coli membranes, which is a unique case among ATP synthases of non-photosynthetic organisms. Moreover, we determined that the b1b2 subcomplex is sufficient to recruit the soluble F1 subcomplex to the membranes, without requiring the presence of the other membrane subunits a and c. The latter subunits can be produced in our expression system only when the whole ATP synthase is expressed, but not in isolation nor in the context of smaller FO subcomplexes. These observations led us to propose a novel mechanism for the assembly of ATP synthases, in which first the F1 subcomplex attaches to the membrane via subunit b1b2, and then cring and subunits a assemble to complete the FO subcomplex. Furthermore, we could purify the heterologous ATP synthase (EAF1FO) to homogeneity by chromatography and electro-elution. Enzymatic assays showed that the purified form of EAF1FO is as active as AAF1FO. Peptide mass fingerprinting showed that EAF1FO is composed of the same subunits as AAF1FO and all soluble and membrane subunits could be identified. Finally, single-particle electron microscopy analysis revealed that the structure of EAF1FO is identical to that of AAF1FO. Therefore, the EAF1FO expression system serves as a reliable platform for investigating on properties of AAF1FO. Specifically, in this work, EAF1FO was used to study the membrane insertion mechanism of rotary subunit c. Subunits c possess different lengths and levels of hydrophobicity across species and by analyzing their N-terminal variability, four phylogenetic groups of subunits c were distinguished (groups 1 to 4). As a member of group 2, the subunit c from A. aeolicus F1FO ATP synthase is characterized by an N-terminal segment that functions as a signal peptide with SRP recognition features, a unique case for bacterial F1FO ATP synthases. By accurately designing mutants of EAF1FO, we determined that such a signal peptide is strictly necessary for membrane insertion of subunit c and we concluded that A. aeolicus subunit c inserts into E. coli membranes using a different pathway than E. coli subunit c. Such a property may be common to other ATP synthases from extremophilic organisms, which all cluster in the same phylogenetic group. In conclusion, the successful production of the fully assembled and active F1FO ATP synthase from A. aeolicus in E. coli reported in this work provides a novel genetic system to study A. aeolicus F1FO ATP synthase. To a broader extent, it will also serve in the future as a solid reference for designing strategies aimed at producing large multi-subunit complexes with complicated stoichiometry.
- Function of plant photosystem II subunits in photoprotection (2013)
- Plants absorb sunlight via photosynthetic pigments and convert light energy intochemical energy in the process of photosynthesis. These pigments are mainly bound to antenna protein complexes that funnel the excitation energy to the photosynthetic reaction centres. The peripheral antenna of plant photosystem II (PSII) consists of the major light-harvesting complex of PSII (LHC-II) and the minor LHCs CP29, CP26 and CP24. Light intensity can change frequently and plants need to adapt to high-light conditions in order to avoid photodamage. When more photons are absorbed than can be utilised by the photosynthetic machinery, excessive excitation energy is dissipated as heat by short-term adaptation processes collectively known as non-photochemical quenching (NPQ). A decrease in PSII antenna chlorophyll (Chl) fluorescence yield and a reduction in the average Chl fluorescence lifetime are associated with NPQ. The main component of NPQ is the so-called energy-dependent quenching (qE), and it is triggered by the rapid drop in thylakoid lumenal pH resulting from the plant’s photosynthetic activity. This process is thought to take place at the PSII antenna complexes, which therefore not only capture and transfer light energy but are also involved in balancing the energy flow. The decrease in lumenal pH acivates the enzyme violaxanthin de-epoxidase (VDE), which converts the xanthophyll violaxanthin (Vio) into zeaxanthin (Zea) in the xanthophyll cycle. In addition, the PSII subunit PsbS was discovered to be essential for qE by screening qE-deficient Arabidopsis thaliana mutants. This membrane protein is considered a member of the LHC superfamily, which also includes LHC-II and the minor LHCs. Previous studies on PsbS isolated either from native source or refolded in vitro have produced inconsistent results on its pigment binding capacity. Interestingly, a pH-dependent change in the quaternary structure of PsbS under high light conditions has been reported. This observed dimer-tomonomer transition very likely follows the protonation of lumenal glutamates upon the drop in pH and is accompanied by a change in PSII supercomplex localisation. PsbS dimers are preferentially found in association with the PSII core, whereas PsbS monomers co-localise with LHC-II.Despite the identification of !pH, Zea and PsbS as key players in qE, both the nature of the quencher(s) as well as the underlying molecular mechanism leading to excess energy dissipation still remain unknown. Several models have been put forward to explain the reversible switch in the antenna from an energy-transmitting to a quenched state. Proposals include a simple pigment exchange of Vio for Zea, and aggregation or an internal conformational change of LHC-II. Charge transfer (CT)quenching in the minor LHCs or quenching by carotenoid dark state (Car S1)-Chl interactions have also been suggested. However, none of these qE models has so far been capable of accommodating all the physiological observations and available experimental data. Most importantly, the function of PsbS remains an enigma. A recent qE model suggested that monomerisation of PsbS enables the protein to transiently bind a carotenoid and form a quenching unit with a Chl of a PSII LHC. In view of the various proposed qE mechanisms, this thesis aimed at understanding the interplay of the different qE components and the contribution of the PSII subunits LHC-II, the minor LHCs and PsbS to qE. The initial approach was to investigate the properties of the PSII subunits in the most simple in vitro model system, namely in detergent solution. For this purpose, LHC-II was isolated either from native source or refolded from recombinantly produced protein. Investigation of the minor LHCs and PsbS required heterologous expression and refolding. In addition, experiments were performed on aggregated LHC-II. Aggregates of LHC-II have been used as a popular model system for qE because they exhibit highly quenched Chl fluorescence. At the final stage of this doctoral work, a more sophisticated model system to approximate the thylakoid membrane was developed by reconstitution of the PSII subunits LHC-II and PsbS into liposomes. This system not only allowed for investigation of these membrane proteins in their native environment, but also for mimicking the xanthophyll cycle by distribution of Zea within the membrane as well as !pH by outside buffer exchange. The role of Zea in qE was first investigated with detergent solubilised antenna proteins. The requirement of this xanthophyll for qE is well-known, but the specific contribution to the molecular quenching mechansim is unclear. Previous work had shown that replacement of Vio for Zea in LHC-II was not sufficient to induce Chl fluorescence quenching in Zea-LHC-II, as suggested by the so-called molecular gearshift mechanism. However, by means of selective two-photon excitation spectroscopy, an increase in electronic interactions between Car S1 and Chls was observed for LHC-II upon lowering the pH of the detergent buffer. Electronic Car S1-Chl coupling became even stronger when Zea-LHC-II was probed. The extent of Car S1-Chl coupling correlated directly with the extent of Chl fluorescence quenching, in a similar way as observed previously in live plants under high-light conditions. However, very similar results were obtained with LHC-II aggregates. This implied that the increase in electronic interactions and fluorescence quenching was independent of Zea and low pH. Further experiments on aggregates of LHC-II Chl mutants indicated that the targeted pigments were also not essential for the observed effects. It is proposed that the same molecular mechanism causes an increase in electronic Car S1-Chl interactions and Chl fluorescence quenching in Zea-LHC-II at low pH as well as in aggregated LHC-II. Most likely, surface exposed pigments form random quenching centres in both cases. On the other hand, it was possible that Zea could act as a direct quencher of excess excitation energy in the minor LHCs. However, enrichment of refolded CP29, CP26 and CP24 with Zea did not lead to a change in the Chl excited state lifetime. Formation of a carotenoid radical cation, previously implied in CT quenching, was also not observed, although artificial generation of such a radical cation was principally possible as shown for CP29. During the course of this work, a study reporting the formation of Zea radical cations in minor LHCs was published. Therefore, Zea-enriched minor LHCs were again investigated on the experimental apparatus used in the reported study. Indeed, the presence of at least one carotenoid radical cation for each minor complex was detected. It is suggested that either the preparation method of incubating the refolded minor LHCs with Zea in contrast to refolding the complexes with only Zea and lutein causes the observed differences or that the observed spectral radical cation signatures are due to experimental artifacts. While the experiments with LHC-II and the minor LHCs gave useful insights into the putative qE mechanism, the quencher site and the mode of action of Zea could still not be unambiguously identified. Most importantly, these studies could not explain the function of the qE keyplayer PsbS. Therefore, the focus of the work was shifted to PsbS protein production, purification and characterisation. In view of inconsistent reports on the pigment binding capacity of this PSII subunit, refolding trials with and without photosynthetic pigments were conducted. The formation of a specific pigmentprotein complex typical for other LHCs was not observed and neither was the earlier reported “activation” of Zea for qE by binding to this protein. Nevertheless, PsbS refolded without pigments displayed secondary structure content in agreement with previous studies, indicating pigment-independent folding. Reconstitution of pigmentfree, refolded PsbS into liposomes confirmed that the protein is stable in the absence of pigments. Zea distributed in PsbS-containing liposomes also showed no spectral alteration that would indicate its “activation”. With the ability to reconstitute PsbS, it was then possible to proceed to modelling qE in a proteoliposome system. For this purpose, PsbS was co-reconstituted with LHC-II, which has been reported to interact with PsbS. One-photon excitation (OPE) and two-photon excitation (TPE) spectroscopy measurements were performed on LHC-II- and LHC-II/PsbS-containing liposomes. This enabled both quantification of Chl fluorescence quenching as well as determination of the extent of electronic Car S1-Chl interactions. The effect of Zea was investigated by incorporating it in the proteoliposome membrane. It was shown that Zea alone was not able to induce significant Chl fluorescence quenching when only LHC-II was present. However, when LHC-II and PsbS were co-reconstituted, pronounced Chl fluorescence quenching and an increase in electronic Car S1-Chl interactions were observed and both effects were enhanced when Zea was present. Western blot analysis indicated the presence of a LHC-II/PsbS-heterodimer in these proteoliposomes. In addition to the OPE and TPE measurements, the average Chl fluorescence lifetime was determined in detergent-free buffer at neutral pH and directly after buffer exchange to low pH. No significant changes in the average lifetime were observed for LHC-II proteoliposomes when either Zea was present or after exchange for low pH buffer. This indicated that Zea alone cannot act as a direct quencher, which concurs with the OPE measurements. Moreover, the complex was also properly reconstituted as no aggregation or significant Chl fluorescence quenching were observed. The average lifetime was not significantly affected in LHC-II/PsbS-proteoliposomes, independent of Zea or pH. However, a shortlived component in the presence of a long-lived component was not resolvable with the time resolution of the fluorescence lifetime apparatus. Implications for qE model systems and the in vivo quenching mechanism are discussed based on the experiments in detergent solution, on LHC-II aggregates and with the proteoliposome model system.
- Untersuchungen zur Bedeutung von NOSTRIN in der Leberzirrhose und Charakterisierung einer neuen NOSTRIN-Isoform (2007)
- Die endotheliale NO-Synthase (eNOS) ist im kardiovaskulären System der Hauptproduzent von Stickstoffmonoxid (NO). Studien deuten auf eine Beteiligung der eNOS im Krankheits-verlauf einer Leberzirrhose hin; zirrhotische Tiere zeigen eine reduzierte hepatische eNOS-Aktivität bei unveränderten Proteinmengen. Die reduzierte NO-Menge trägt zu einer Erhöh-ung des intrahepatischen Widerstandes und einer portalen Hypertonie bei. Inhibitoren und posttranslationale Modifikationen der eNOS wurden als auslösende Faktoren postuliert, aber auch am intrazellulären Transport der eNOS beteiligte Proteine könnten eine wichtige Rolle spielen. Ein solches ist das neue Protein NOSTRIN (“eNOS traffic inducer”), das über seine C-terminale SH3-Domäne an eNOS bindet und durch seine N-terminale FCH Domäne an Membranen assoziiert. In vorhergegangenen Studien wurde nur ein translatiertes Protein identifiziert, bezeichnet als NOSTRINalpha. In der vorliegenden Arbeit habe ich eine verkürzte Isoform entdeckt (NOSTRINbeta), die aus einem alternativen Spleißvorgang hervorgeht. Ihr fehlt fast die gesamte FCH Domäne, wodurch keine Membranbindung mehr stattfindet. Diese Isoform konnte nur in pathogenem Lebergewebe nachgewiesen werden. Untersuchun-gen mittels Western Blotting und qRT-PCR mit Proben aus Patienten mit Zirrhose, alkoholischer Hepatitis oder von gesunden Personen, zeigten eine deutliche Erhöhung der Expression beider NOSTRIN-Isoformen von gesundem zu zirrhotischem Gewebe. NOSTRINalpha mRNA-Mengen waren in zirrhotischen vs. gesunden Proben verdoppelt, und in Proben aus Patienten mit zusätzlicher Hepatitis verdreifacht. Dies deutet darauf hin, dass erhöhte Mengen von NOSTRINalpha zu einer Internalisierung und Inaktivierung der eNOS führen könnten. NOSTRINalpha und NOSTRINbeta wurden ebenfalls in Hep3B-Zellen auf Protein und mRNA-Ebene nachgewiesen, ihre Expression war durch Retinsäure zeit- und dosisabhängig stimulierbar. NOSTRINalpha lokalisiert an Plasmamembran und vesikulären Strukturen, NOSTRINbeta hingegen hauptsächlich im Zellkern, eine geringe Fraktion im Zytosol. Über Kartier-ungsstudien wurden zwei nuclear leading sequences (NLS) identifiziert, die den Transport in den Zellkern vermitteln, sowie eine Crm-1-abhängige nuclear export sequence (NES). Im EMSA konnte die Bindung von NOSTRINbeta an die Promotorregion des NOSTRIN-Gens gezeigt werden. Diese Ergebnisse legen eine Funktion von NOSTRINbeta als Transkriptionsfaktor nahe, evtl. innerhalb einer negativen Rückkopplung auf die NOSTRINalpha-Expression. Weiter-führende Studien sollen diesen potentiellen molekularen Mechanismus im Detail klären.
- Expression and characterization of P-type ATPases for structural studies (2007)
- Two types of proteins transport ions across the membrane – ion channels and ion pumps. Ion pumps transport ions against their electrochemical gradient by co-transporting another ion or a substrate molecule through a concentration gradient or by coupling this process to an energy source like ATP. Those that couple ATP hydrolysis to ion transport are called ion motive ATPases and can be classified as ‘V’, ‘F’ and ‘P’ types. In this thesis, two sub-classes of P-type ATPases, PIIIA and PIB were studied. Attempts were made to over-express and crystallize the plant proton pump AHA2 (a PIIIA-ATPase). Also, the two putative copper transporting ATPases, CtrA3 (CopB-like) and CtrA2 (CopA-like) from Aquifex aeolicus (both PIB pumps) were over-expressed in E. coli and characterized. PIIIA-type pumps transport protons across the membrane and are found exclusively in plants and fungi, and probably some archaea. One of the most characterized proton pump biochemically is the A. thaliana proton pump AHA2. An 8Å projection map of this enzyme is already available (Jahn 2001). PIBATPases, also called CPX type pumps transport heavy metal ions such as Cu+, Cu2+, Zn2+, Pb2+, Cd2+, Co2+ across biological membranes and play an important role in homeostasis and biotolerance of these metals. CopA and CopB are two such proteins that transport copper across cell membrane found in many prokaryotes. CopB-like proteins are found almost exclusively in bacteria, with CPH sequence motif, while CopA-like proteins have CPC sequence motif, also found in eukaryotic copper transporters including human ATP7A and ATP7B. CopB extrudes Cu2+ across the membrane. CopA is activated by and transports Cu+ but the direction of transport is debated. Attempts were made to over-express the plant proton pump AHA2 in yeast Pichia pastoris. However, the yeast expressed only a truncated protein, which could not be used for further studies. It can be concluded that P. pastoris strain SMD1163 is not a good host for expression of AHA2. Focus was then shifted to AHA2 that has been over-expressed and purified from S. cerevisiae strain RS72. Growth and purification protocols had to be changed from published methods because of laboratory constraints and this probably had an effect on the protein produced. The protein purified from S. cerevisiae could not be crystallized reproducibly for structural studies by electron microscopy. CtrA3 was expressed in E. coli and purified using Ni2+-NTA matrix. Like CopB of A. fulgidus (Mana Capelli 2003), it was active only in the presence of Cu2+ and to some extent in Ag+. The protein was maximally active at 75°C, at pH 7 and in presence of cysteine. Lipids were essential for the activity of CtrA3. However, when the protein was purified in Cymal-6, CtrA3 could not hydrolyze ATP, even when lipids were added to the reaction mixture. For reconstitution of CtrA3 into liposomes for 2D crystallization, several lipids were tested. To screen the lipids compatible for protein incorporation, CtrA3 was dialyzed with different lipids at a high lipid-to-protein ratio of 10:1 and centrifuged by sucrose density gradient. Protein incorporated in lipids localized with liposome fraction in the gradient. Most of the CtrA3 was incorporated into DPPC with no aggregation. This lipid was used for reconstitution of CtrA3 at low LPRs, and at an LPR of 0.3-0.5, the protein formed 2D crystals. A NaCl concentration of 50mM was necessary for the formation of crystals. However, salt removal by dialysis prior to harvesting was essential for obtaining wellordered lattices of CtrA3. Addition of preservatives like trehalose and tannin or direct plunging in liquid ethane for cryo-microscopy destroyed the crystal lattice. Similar to CtrA3, the gene responsible for expression of CtrA2 was amplified from genomic DNA of A. aeolicus and expressed in E. coli and purified by Ni2+-NTA. Functional characterization of CtrA2 was done by analyzing ATP hydrolysis activity of the enzyme. Similar to CopA of A. fulgidus (Mandal 2002), CtrA2 was activated in the presence of Ag+ and to some extent, Cu+. It is possible that both the copper ATPases of A. aeolicus have different ion selectivity- CtrA3, specific for Cu2+ and CtrA2, specific for Cu+. Maximal activity of CtrA2 was also at 75°C. Cysteine was essential for activity of CtrA2, but the protein was not dependent on addition of lipids for activation. Reconstitution of CtrA2 was done similar to CtrA3 for screening of lipids for 2D crystallization. Of the lipids tested, DOPC reconstituted the protein best. However, screening at low LPRs did not yield any crystals. Even though both CtrA3 and CtrA2 are similar heavy metal transporting Ptype ATPases from the same organism and have 36% identity, they behaved completely different in their expression levels in E. coli, purification profiles, activity and reconstitution in lipids.
- Production, biochemical characterization and preliminary structural studies of human Endothelin B receptor in its ligand-bound state (2007)
- G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) comprise the largest superfamily of cell surface receptors and possess a signature motif of seven transmembrane helices. The endothelin B (ETB) receptor is a member of rhodopsin like GPCR family. It plays an important role in vasodilation and is found in the membranes of the endothelial cells enveloping blood vessels. Knowledge of the three-dimensional structure of G-protein coupled receptors in general would significantly add to our understanding of their molecular mechanisms and would be useful in the search for new specific drugs. However, three-dimensional structural analysis will require milligram quantities of pure and homogeneous protein. This dissertation is a study of the production, biochemical characterization and preliminary structural studies of the human ETB G-protein coupled receptor. The present work aimed at elucidating the structure and mechanistic details of function of the receptor by using a combination of X-ray crystallographic and NMR methods for collecting structural data. To obtain homogenous and monodisperse receptor protein preparation for structural and functional studies, we implemented the baculovirus expression system for the production of ETB receptor for the present work. The two step affinity purification ensured capture of full-length receptor. Silver stained SDS-PAGE of the purified receptor-ligand complex indicated greater than 90% protein purity. Based on previous reports, we used the high affinity ligand (endothelin -1) binding to the receptor for co-crystallization of receptor-ligand complex by locking the receptor in the activated conformation. As a prerequisite for 3D crystallization trials, the stability of the detergent solubilized receptor-ligand complex was assessed with respect to pH, temperature and time. Receptor-ligand complex did not show any degradation and aggregation over 6 days at 4°C and 18°C. Interestingly, change of pH suggested that receptor-ligand complex is unstable at lower pH due to possible charge induced conformational changes. In our work, we introduced the idea of using fluorophore labeled ligand for simple visual recognition of the receptor-ligand complex during purification and crystallization. On the other hand, we alternatively used biotinylated endothelin-1 to produce an adequate amount of ligand bound receptor complex, thus ensuring homogeneity of the purified complex for use in structural studies. Thus far, preliminary crystals have been obtained for both the unlabelled ET-1 and fluorophore labeled ET-1 complexed with ETB receptor. Moreover, we performed the systematic investigation of the protein/peptide binding partner for the receptor-ligand complex with the chief aims of stabilizing structure and increasing the possibilities of 3D-crystal contacts. Thus subsequent to formation of receptor-ligand complex, the additional in vitro formation of a ternary arrestin-receptor-ligand complex was also attempted for use in structural studies. We successfully demonstrated that arrestin mutant (R169E) forms a tight complex with ETB receptor regardless of its phosphorylation state. A second approach to get insight into the ETB receptor ligand binding site relied on the use of spin isotope labeled ET-1 ligand peptide by employing solid state MAS NMR method. Preliminary data provided compelling evidence that the C-terminal region of the peptide is immobilized in an ordered environment and presumably bound to the receptor. This indicates that the approach is feasible, although there are difficulties in sample preparation for further spectral measurements and data collection which are currently being discussed in ongoing investigations. At this point of our research work, we initiated a collaborative effort to obtain high yields of pure, active receptor without post translational modifications, from an E. coli cell lysate based in vitro expression system. We successfully optimized the production of homogenous and monodisperse endothelin B receptor in mg amounts. Thus this could potentially provide an alternative source of high quality receptor production in large quantities for immediate crystallization trials. Thus we hope that the results from these investigations can be applied in a more general sense to the production and crystallization of other G protein-coupled receptors.
- Establishment of an Escherichia coli cell-free expression system for the large scale production of selected membrane proteins (2007)
- Membrane proteins play vital role in a variety of cellular processes, such as signal transduction, transport and recognition. In turn they are involved in numerous human diseases and currently represent one of the most prevalent drug targets. A comprehensive understanding of the mechanisms mediated by membrane proteins requires information about their structures at near-atomic resolution, although structural studies of membrane proteins remain behind those of soluble proteins. A bottleneck in the study of membrane proteins resides in the difficulties that are encountered during their high-level production in cell based systems. However, many toxic effects attributed to the over production of membrane proteins are eliminated by cell-free expression, as viable host cells are no longer required. Therefore, the objective of this study was to obtain adequate amounts of selected membrane transport proteins for their structural studies using a cell-free expression system. For the establishment of the cell-free system for membrane proteins, the transporters YbgR and YiiP from Salmonella typhimurium LT2, PF0558 and PF1373 from Pyrococcus furiosus, from the cation diffusion family (CDF), BetP from Corynebacterium glutamicum from the betaine/carnitine/choline transporter (BCCT) family and Aq-2030 from Aquifex aeolicus VF5 from the monovalent cation/proton antiporter-2 (CPA2) family were selected. An Escherichia coli S-30 extract based cellfree system was established by generating the best expression constructs of the target proteins, preparing T7 RNA polymerase and an S-30 extract with high translation efficiency. The functionality of the S-30 extract was shown by the cell-free expression of correctly folded Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP). Essential factors of the cell-free system such as the Mg2+ concentration, the bacterial S-30 extract proportion in the reaction mixture and the time-course of cell-free reactions have been optimized. For the cell-free production of membrane proteins in soluble form, the possibility to supplement cell-free reactions with detergents was explored. A wide range of non-ionic or zwitterionic detergents, were found to be compatible with cell-free synthesis, while ionic detergents and non-ionic detergents at high concentrations had an inhibitory effect. Moreover, high concentrations of polyoxyethylene-alkyl-ethers (Brij) detergents were found to have enhancing effect on the production levels as well as on the solubility of cell-free produced proteins. As membrane proteins tend to misfold and aggregate in a membrane-free translation system, the possibility to supplement the cell-free reactions with inner membrane vesicles (IMVs) to obtain correctly folded target transport proteins was explored. All the target proteins were successfully produced in the batch cell-free reactions and were found to be incorporated in the IMVs. A continuous exchange cell-free (CECF) system was established, where consumable substrates (amino acids, nucleotides and energy regenerating compounds) were supplied to the cell-free reaction mixture through a dialysis membrane, which in consequence resulted in high-level production of target proteins compared to the batch system. The osmosensing and osmoregulated sodium-coupled symporter BetP from C. glutamicum was chosen for the large scale production in CECF set-up. The protein is easily produced in E. coli and is functional as assayed by its transport activity, after purification and reconstitution in liposomes. It is therefore possible to compare in-vivo and cell-free production. High-level cell-free production of BetP was achieved in CECF mode in different forms: (i) as precipitate, (ii) as soluble form in detergent, and (iii) incorporated in IMVs. Cell-free production of BetP resulted in the yield of about 0.5 mg of purified BetP from 1 ml of CECF reaction. The yield of purified BetP was increased to 1.6 fold by addition of 1% polyoxyethylene-(20)-cetyl-ether (Brij58) detergent in the reaction mixture. Moreover, the high level cell-free production of BetP (0.5 mg purified BetP/ml reaction mixture) incorporated in IMVs was shown for the first time in this work.However, it was observed that oligomerization of BetP was not efficient in the cell-free system. Factors that can promote the folding of membrane proteins such as lipids and chaperones were investigated. Addition of lipids and molecular chaperone GroE facilitated correct folding of BetP resulting in increased yield and stability of cell-free produced BetP. The results obtained indicate that most of the cell-free produced BetP exists in functional oligomeric form. The possibility of obtaining milligram amounts of BetP, a 12 trans-membrane protein from the cell-free reactions holds promise for structural and functional studies of other membrane proteins. In any case, the strategies adapted in this study should prove extremely valuable for the production of membrane proteins in the E. coli cell-free expression system.