Year of publication
- 2006 (3) (remove)
- English (3) (remove)
- Production of the human adenosine A2A receptor in Pichia pastoris, its solubilization and purification, and the selection of a specific single-chain Fv fragment by phage display (2006)
- G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) comprise the largest membrane protein family and play an essential role in signal transduction through the cell membrane. They are currently the targets of approximately 50 % of the pharmaceuticals on the market (Klabunde and Hessler, 2002). However, only one high-resolution GPCR structure has been determined up to now, that of bovine rhodopsin (Palczewski et al., 2000). The GPCR activation and regulation mechanisms are still unknown and other GPCR structures are thus required. MePNet (Membrane Protein Network) was a European consortium dedicated to structural studies of GPCRs. The approach was to produce 100 GPCRs in three expression systems (Escherichia coli, Pichia pastoris and Semliki Forest Virus infected mammalian cells) in order to select at each step of the process (production, solubilization, purification) the constructs that fulfilled quantity and quality (functionality) requirements for crystallization trials. In our team, we screened 38 of the 100 targets in P. pastoris. For each receptor, the clone with the highest production level was identified by dot-blot. The size and homogeneity of each receptor were then analyzed by Western-blot. The human adenosine A2A receptor showed a well-defined and pronounced single band and was thus selected for further characterization. The adenosine A2A receptor is a GPCR mainly localized in the central nervous system and, as it antagonizes dopaminergic activity, it has great potential as a drug target for the treatment of Parkinson’s disease. Functional characterization by binding assays with the specific antagonist [3H]-ZM241385 demonstrated a Bmax of 56 +/- 3 pmol/mg i.e. pmol of binder per milligram of total membrane protein, and a KD of 0.40 +/- 0.02 nM. Receptor production was then improved by lowering the induction temperature, decreasing the induction time and adding DMSO to the medium. For large-scale production, fermention reached around 300 g cells (wet weight)/L culture, which provided 43 mg of functional receptor in membranes per liter of culture. Functional solubilization was achieved with dodecyl-β-D-maltoside and the soluble yield was increased to 70-80 % of the membrane content by addition of cholesteryl hemisuccinate and increasing the ionic strength. The receptor was successfully purified via Ni-NTA and monomeric avidin chromatography in the presence of the antagonist ZM241385. This strategy produced a pure, homogeneous and stable receptor preparation with functionality demonstrated by radioligand binding assays. The total receptor yield after purification was routinely around 20 % of the membrane functional receptor content and 2 g of membranes provided 4 mg of pure receptor for crystallization trials. GPCRs are very difficult targets for crystallization, and co-crystallization with antibody fragments has been shown to be a successful method for crystallization of membrane proteins. In order to develop such a tool for the adenosine A2A receptor, a single-chain Fv (scFv) fragment specific to the purified receptor was selected by phage display. The receptor was functionally immobilized on the surface of streptavidin beads and after two rounds of selection, 6 different phages were identified several times. After production in E. coli and purification via Ni-NTA affinity chromatography, 4 out of the 6 scFv fragments were sufficiently enriched to be tested by ELISA. For the ELISA, the receptor was functionally immobilized via the biotinylation domain of the construct in a 96-well streptavidin-coated plate. The antibody fragments binding to the receptor were identified based on interaction with HRP-conjugated protein L. One scFv fragment gave a positive ELISA signal 10 fold above background and titration of the scFv fragment binding to the receptor was specific and saturable. However no complex of scFv fragment and receptor was observed on gel filtration. In order to have a more sensitive detection method, the scFv fragment was labeled with fluorescein: a complex was then observed up on gel filtration but the binding appeared to be non-specific. A pull-down assay with immobilized non-labeled scFv fragment finally confirmed the specificity of the binding, but also the low affinity of the interaction. Affinity maturation of this specific scFv fragment by a random mutagenesis and selection process should improve this parameter in order to obtain an adapted tool for co-crystallization.
- Funktionelle Charakterisierung der C-terminalen-Domänen des Korepressors N-CoR (2006)
- Although in general cells are genetically identical in multicellular organisms, the differential expression of genomic information enables cell type definition and specific organ function. In eukaryotic cells, the DNA is associated with histone and non-histones proteins into a restrictive structure called chromatin. Assembly into chromatin does not only protect and package the linear double stranded DNA into the nucleus but is fundamental for the execution of diverse genetic programs. Posttranslational modifications of histones regulate the accessibility of the DNA to transcription factors and serve as scaffold for binding of regulatory proteins. Nuclear receptors are transcription factors that bind specific target sequences on the DNA and recruit transcriptional coregulators at the promoter. These are able to modify the chromatin structure in an activating or repressing manner. The contribution of corepressors to the biological actions of nuclear receptors has turned out to be essential. Impaired corepressor function can be the cause of endocrine malfunctions, neoplastic diseases or severe developmental abnormalities. To better understand the role of the nuclear receptor corepressor N-CoR the unknown function of the extreme C-terminus was investigated. In this thesis the interaction of N-CoR with the non-POU-domain containing octamer-binding protein Non0/p54nrb, that was found tobe a potential interaction partner in a yeast-two-hybrid screen, was confirmed. This protein contains two RNA recognition motifs (RRM) and is described as a multifunctional protein since it is involved in transcription Initiation as well as in pre-mRNA processing. The RRM1 motif was determined to be essential and sufficient for the interaction with N-CoR. Obtaining dominant negative effect with the Non0/p54nrb RRM1 deletion mutant in functional reporter assays, data support that NonO modulates the capacity of N-CoR to repress and alters the recruitment of N-CoR by nuclear receptors to targeted Promoters. Additional analyses suggest that the N- and C- terminus of N-CoR are involved in intramolecular interactions and that they regulate each other. Taken results together a functional model is proposed that supports the biological relevance of the interaction of N-CoR with NonO and the function of N-CoR C-terminus acting as asensor that evaluates the ratio of corepressors and coactivators in the nuclear receptor environment. N-CoR repressive capacity would be altered by modulating factors like NonO that interacts with N-CoR C-terminus. The mechanism support that splicing and transcription regulation are physically and functionallylinked to ensure the appropriate amount of messager RNA to be transcript and process in response to stimulation intensity and cell context.
- Association of bacterial respiratory complexes (2006)
- The mitochondrial respiratory chain consists of NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase (Complex-I), succinate:ubiquinone reductase (Complex-II), ubiquinol:cytochrome c reductase (Complex-III), cytochrome c oxidase (Complex-IV) and cytochrome c as an electron mediator between Complex-III and Complex-IV. Paracoccus denitrificans membranes were used as a model system for the association of the mitochondrial respiratory chain. More than 50 years ago, a model was given for a supercomplex assembly formed by stable associations between these complexes. This model gradually shifted by the model of random diffusion given by Hackenbrock et al. 1986 Different independent approaches were used to further analyze this situation in a native membrane environment, thus avoiding any perturbation caused by detergent solubilization: (a) measuring the distance and orientation of the different complexes by multi-frequency EPR Spectroscopy we started to analyze simple system, the interaction between CuA fragment derived from P. denitrificans and various c type cytochrome by Pulsed X band and G band (180 GHz) EPR. Partner proteins for the CuA (excess negative surface charge) were (i) horse heart cytochrome c which contain a large number of positive charges in heme crevice,(ii) the cytochrome c552 soluble fragment (physiological electron donor and have positive charges), and as a control (iii) the cytochrome c1 soluble fragment (negative surface potential, derived from bc1 complex) The measurements were performed at several magnetic field positions varying temperature between 5 to 30 K. Both the X band and the high-field measurements show the existence of a strong relaxation enhancement of the CuA by the specific binding of the P. denitrificans cytochrome c552 and horse heart cytochrome c. This relaxation enhancement is dependent on temperature and provides information about the distance and relative orientation of the two interacting spins within this protein-protein complex. (b) For quantitative information about lateral diffusion of cytochrome c oxidase in the native membrane Fluorescence Correlation Spectroscopy (FCS) was used. In this experiment, diffusion coefficients for oxidase differ in the case of supercomplex for wild type membrane and for two deletion mutants lacking either Complex-I or Complex-III. (c) The optical absorption spectroscopy at microsecond level resolution was tried for the translational mobility of oxidase in membrane vesicles. Due to the presence of different hemes in the native membrane, carbon monoxide (CO) used as a probe for the experiment. The optimization of the experimental conditions were carried out to get the optimal signal.