Year of publication
- 2010 (6) (remove)
- English (6) (remove)
- Investigation of three accessory subunits of complex I from Yarrowia lipolytica (2010)
- The nicotinamide-adenine-dinucleotide (NADH):ubiquinone oxidoreductase (complex I) from the strictly aerobic yeast Y. lipolytica contains at least 26 “accessory” subunits however the significance of most of them remains unknown. The aim of this study was to characterize the role of three accessory subunits of complex I, recently identified: two mitochondrial acyl carrier proteins, ACPM1 and ACPM2 and a sulfurtransferase (st1) subunit. ACPMs are small (approx. 10 kDa) acidic proteins that are homologous to the corresponding central components of prokaryotic fatty acid synthase complexes. Genomic deletions of the two genes ACPM1 and ACPM2 resulted in strains that were not viable or retained only trace amounts of assembled mitochondrial complex I, respectively, as assessed using two-dimensional blue native/sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (BN/SDS) PAGE. This suggested different functions for the two proteins that despite high similarity could not be complemented by the respective other homolog still expressed in the deletion strains. To test whether complex I was affected by deletion of the ACPM2 gene, its activities in mitochondrial membranes were measured. Consequently, specific inhibitor sensitive dNADH: decylubiquinone (DBQ) oxidoreductase activity was lost completely and a strong decrease in dNADH: hexa-ammine-ruthenium (HAR) oxidoreductase activity was measured. Remarkably, the same phenotypes were observed if just the conserved serine carrying the phosphopantethein moiety was exchanged with alanine. Although this suggested a functional link to the lipid metabolism of mitochondria, using HPLC chromatography no changes in the lipid composition of the organelles were found. Proteomic analysis revealed that both ACPMs were tightly bound to purified mitochondrial complex I. Western blot analysis revealed that the affinity tagged ACPM1 and ACPM2 proteins were exclusively detectable in mitochondrial membranes but not in the mitochondrial matrix as reported for other organisms. Hence it has been concluded that the ACPMs can serve all their possible functions in mitochondrial lipid metabolism and complex I assembly and stabilization as subunits bound to complex I. A protein exhibiting rhodanese (thiosulfate:cyanide sulfurtransferase) activity was found to be associated with homogenous preparation of complex I. From a rhodanese deletion strain, functional complex I that lacked the additional protein but was fully assembled and displayed no functional defects or changes in EPR signature was purified. In contrast to previous suggestions, this indicated that the sulfurtransferase associated with Y. lipolytica complex I is not required for assembly of its iron–sulfur clusters.
- Functional and structural characterization of Aquifex aeolicus sulfide:quinone oxidoreductase (2010)
- This work presents the first complete structure of the membrane protein sulfide:quinone oxidoreductase (SQR), obtained by X-ray crystallography. Its description is complemented by the results of biochemical and functional experiments. SQRs are ubiquitous flavoprotein disulfide reductases (FDRs), present in all domains of life, including in humans. Their physiological role extends from sulfide detoxification to sulfide-dependent respiration and photosynthesis (in archaea and bacteria), to heavy metal tolerance (in yeast) and possibly to sulfide signalling (in higher eukaryotes). Until now understanding the function of SQRs was difficult because of the poor level of sequence conservation in this enzyme family, the limited functional characterization available and the absence of any structural data. SQR was identified in the native membranes of the hyperthermophilic bacterium Aquifex aeolicus by peptide mass fingerprinting (PMF) and by a spectrophotometric activity assay. The protein was solubilized in the detergent dodecyl-beta-D-maltoside (DDM) and purified to homogeneity in a functionally active state. It binds one FAD molecule per protein monomer and FAD is its only cofactor. Its structure was determined in the “as-purified”, substrate-bound and inhibitor-bound forms at resolutions of 2.3, 2.0 and 2.9 Å, respectively. It is composed of two Rossmann-fold domains and of one membrane-attachment region. Despite the overall monomeric architecture being similar to that of FDRs, the structure reveals properties that had not been observed in FDRs until now and that have strong implications for the SQR catalytic mechanism. Surprisingly, A. aeolicus SQR is trimeric in the crystal structure and in solution, as determined by density-matched analytical ultracentrifugation, cross-linking and single particle electron microscopy. The trimer creates an appropriate surface for binding lipids and thus ensures that SQR exclusively reduces hydrophobic quinones. SQR inserts to a depth of about 12 Å into the membrane as an integral monotopic membrane protein. The interaction is mediated by an amphipathic helix-turn-helix tripodal motif and two lipid clamps. A channel in the membrane-binding domain extends towards the si-side of FAD and represents the quinone-binding site. The quinone ring is sandwiched between the conserved amino acids Phe 385 and Ile 346 and is possibly protonated upon reduction via Glu 318, Lys 382 and/or neighboring solvent molecules. Sulfide polymerization occurs on the re-side of FAD, where the highly conserved Cys 156 and Cys 347 appear to be covalently bound to the putative product of the reaction, a polysulfur chain which takes the form of an S8 ring in some monomers. Finally, the structure shows that FAD is covalently connected to the protein in an unprecedented way, via a putative disulfide bridge between the 8-methyl group of the isoalloxazine moiety and Cys 124. The high resolution insight into the protein and all unexpected structural observations presented in this work suggest that the catalytic mechanism of SQRs is significantly different from that of FDRs. In agreement with the structural and functional data, two reaction schemes are proposed for A. aeolicus SQR. They both provide a detailed description of how sulfide and quinones reach and bind the active site, how electrons are transferred from sulfide to quinone via FAD and how the elongating polysulfur product is attached to the polypeptide and is finally released. The two hypotheses differ in defining the structure of the covalent protein-FAD intermediate that forms during the reaction cycle and whose identity still remains experimentally undetermined. Remarkably, the structure of the active site and the FAD-binding mode of A. aeolicus SQR are not conserved in another SQR structure which also became available recently, that of the archaeon Acidianus ambivalens. The variability in SQRs suggests that not all of these enzymes follow the same catalytic mechanism, despite having been considered homologous. Consequently, the currently available but contradictory sequence-based classifications of the SQR family were revised. A structure-based alignment calculated on the increasing number of available sequences allowed to define new SQR groups and their characteristic sequence fingerprints in agreement with the reported structural and functional data. In conclusion, the results obtained in this work offer for the first time a detailed look into the intriguing but complicated reactions catalysed by SQRs and provide a stimulus for further genetic, biochemical and structural investigation.
- In vivo selection of retroviral display libraries for tumor homing (2010)
- The display of foreign polypeptides and proteins on the surface of viruses or cells provides an important tool for the engineering of biomolecules and the analysis of their interactions with binding partners. The most extensively used display platform is the coat protein of the filamentous bacteriophage (Smith, 1985). Phage display libraries have often been selected for polypeptides, e.g. single chain (sc) antibodies that bind to a protein of interest, but in vivo selection could only be demonstrated for peptides so far. An alternative display platform is the retrovirus murine leukemia virus (MLV). Here, polypeptides are displayed at the N-terminus of the viral envelope glycoprotein. Proof of principle for this platform was demonstrated for protease substrate libraries, which can be selected through coupling proteolytic activation with viral infectivity (Buchholz et al., 1998). Selection of the library CX4A on living cells resulted in viruses with more than three orders of magnitude improved spreading efficiency through tumor cells (Hartl et al., 2005). Also scAb libraries have recently been displayed and selected using retroviruses (Urban et al., 2005). The library scFvlibxMo displays the repertoire of phage display preselected sc antibodies for laminin-1 binding. The retrovirus based selection process resulted in laminin-specific sc antibodies with improved expression levels in mammalian cells. This thesis describes the in vivo (i.e. in mouse tumor models) selection of the C-X4-A and scFvlibxMo for tumor homing upon systemic delivery. For selection of the protease substrate library C-X4-A a subcutaneous tumor was induced in SCID mice followed by three systemic injections of the library. The selection process was monitored over a period of 34 days. After the incubation period mice were sacrificed and virus load in organs and tumor determined. PCR analysis after 34 days showed that virus from the library had preferentially infected the tumor. Sequence analysis showed the selection of protease substrates with the most prominent one with a frequency of over 65%. The four most prominent protease substrate variants where reconstituted into the original viral backbone for further investigation (C-SK-A, C-HI-A, C-HM-A and C-HS-A). Interestingly, these viruses exhibited a reduced spreading capacity in vitro on HT1080 cells as compared to the C-AK-A virus, which had previously been selected on HT1080 cells. When assayed for tumor homing, however, viruses C-HI-A and C-HS-A had clearly improved in comparison to C-AK-A. Tumor tissue had been infected at rates of over 55% while virus load of extratumoral organs was very low (infection rates <0.7 for C-HS-A and <0.02 for C-HI-A). Tumor targeting capacity had thus been improved over 10-fold by the in vivo selection of the C-X4-A library. The experimental set up for the in vivo selection of the scFvlibxMo library was performed according to that of the C-X4-A library. Fingerprint analysis of the selected viruses that infected tumor tissue resulted in the identification of seven antibody variants showing unique CDR3 sequences. Two prominent clones (M49T-A and M49T-B) were cloned back into the MoMLV genome for further analysis of the reconstituted viruses. While variant B bound laminin-1 efficiently, variant A was unable to do so, although it was selected at highest frequency (76%). Both reconstituted viruses were equally well infectious and spread through HT1080rec1 cells at a similar efficiency as MoMLV. In an in vivo competition experiment the selected viruses clearly out-competed a laminin-1 binding reference virus L36xMo for tumor homing. To understand the molecular driving forces behind the in vivo selection process the epitope of the selected scFv M49T-A was identified using a phage peptide library approach. In silico analysis led to the identification of a small group of possible antigens, including tenascin, fibronectin and collagen. The data described in this thesis demonstrate that the retrovirus display platform is capable of allowing the in vivo selection of protease substrates and scFvs. Notably, the replication competence of the system introduced an additional level of complexity to the library. The performed in vivo selections significantly enhanced tumor tropism. Selective infection of tumor cells combined with transfer of anti-tumoral genes is an attractive strategy for cancer therapy being in focus of current research. The viruses selected in this thesis build prime candidates for targeted retrovirus based tumor therapy.
- Biochemical, structural and functional characterization of diheme-containing succinate:quinone reductase (SQR) from Bacillus licheniformis (2010)
- Succinate:quinone oxidoreductases (SQORs) are integral membrane protein complexes, which couple the two-electron oxidation of succinate to fumarate (succinate → fumarate + 2H+ + 2e-) to the two-electron reduction of quinone to quinol (quinone + 2H+ + 2e- → quinol) as well as catalyzing the opposite reaction, the reduction of fumarate by quinol. In mitochondria and some aerobic bacteria, succinate:ubiquinone reductase, also known as complex II of the aerobic respiratory chain or as succinate dehydrogenase from the tricarboxylic acid (TCA or Krebs) cycle, catalyzes the oxidation of succinate by ubiquinone, which is mildly exergonic under standart conditions and not directly associated with energy storage in the form of a transmembrane electrochemical proton potential (Δp). Gram-positive bacteria do not contain ubiquinone but rather menaquinone, a quinone with significantly lower oxidation-reduction (“redox”) midpoint potential. In these cases, the catalyzed oxidation of succinate by quinone is endergonic under standard conditions. Consequently, these bacteria face a thermodynamic problem in supporting the catalysis of this reaction in vivo. Based on experimental evidence obtained on whole cells and purified membranes, it had previously been proposed that the SQR from Gram-positive bacteria supports this reaction at the expense of the protonmotive force, Δp. Nonetheless, it has been argued that the observed Δp dependence is not associated specifically with the activity of SQR because the occurrence of artifacts in experiments with bacterial membranes and whole cells can not be fully excluded. Clearly, definitive insight into the mechanism of catalysis of this intriguing reaction required a corresponding functional characterization of an isolated, membranebound SQR from a Gram-positive bacterium. The first aim of the present work addresses the question if the general feasibility of the energetically uphill electron transfer from succinate to menaquinone is associated specifically to a single enzyme complex, the SQR. The prerequisite to achieve this goal was stable preparation of this enzyme.
- Structural and functional studies of the cytoplasmic portion of the hybrid sensor like-kinase RcsD within the Rcs phosphorelay of Escherichia coli (2010)
- Employing NMR spectroscopy, it is not only possible to calculate the three dimensional structures of single proteins, but also to study dynamics and conformational changes of protein-complexes. In fact that is an important aspect, since the protein function depends on dynamics and interactions with other molecules. Therefore the study of protein-protein interactions is of highest importance for a better understanding of biological processes. Based on NMR methods, in this thesis we were able to determine protein-protein interactions within the enterobacterial Rcs signalling complex which is regulated via a phosphorelay. Originally identified as regulator of capsule synthesis, the Rcs phosphorelay is now considered to be implicated in stress response caused by disturbances in the peptidoglycan layer. Beyond that the Rcs system is involved in multiplex transcriptional networks including cell division, motility, biofilm formation and virulence. Because of such global nature and its extraordinary structural organisation involving membrane integrated sensor proteins (RcsC, RcsD), coactivators (RcsF, RcsA) and a transcription factor (RcsB), the Rcs system is one of the most remarkable phosphorelays in the family of enterobacteriacaea. During the complex phosphotransfer the histidine phosphotransferase (HPt) domain of the intermediary RcsD protein mediates the phosphotransfer between RcsC and RcsB, and probably modulates the phosphorylation state of the response regulator RcsB. Therefore the present work has been focused on the interface between RcsD and RcsB in more detail. In the first part of the thesis a new domain within the RcsD protein has been identified and structurally analysed by liquid NMR spectroscopy. RcsD is an inner membrane bound hybrid sensor like-kinase composed of a periplasmic sensor domain and a cytoplasmic portion. The cytoplasmic part contains the histidine like-kinase (HK) domain and the histidine phosphotransferase (HPt) domain. By analysis of the secondary structure in more detail, it was shown here that the two domains are intermitted by an additional 13.3 kDa domain. Corresponding to the position of the ABL (α−β−loop) domain of RcsC, located C-terminal to the RcsC-HK domain, the new identified domain was named RcsD-ABL. The central structural element of RcsD-ABL is a β-sheet composed of six strands with a β1−β2−β3−β4−β6−β5 topology and surrounded by two α-helices α1 and α2. In the second part of the thesis, RcsD-ABL is identified as a binding domain for the response regulator RcsB by NMR titration experiments. Such a binding domain for a response regulator has so far only been described for the histidine kinase CheA. In reportergene assays with β-galactosidase and ONPG as substrate it was shown that overexpression of RcsD-ABL in high amounts inhibited binding of RcsB to its target promoter. The β-galactosidase activity was reduced by 80 % with respect to cells carrying no plasmid encoding RcsD-ABL. The mapping of the binding interface was successfully achieved by chemical shift perturbations, a fast mapping protocol and selective labelling. It was shown that the interaction between RcsD-ABL and RcsB takes place via a binding interface comprising mainly the two α-helices of RcsD-ABL and the α-helices α7, α8 and α10 in the effector domain of RcsB. In the third part of the thesis, the interaction of RcsB with RcsD-ABL was related to that with RcsD-HPt. Using NMR titration experiments and ITC measurements, a comparison of the binding constants (Kd) of RcsB interacting either with the isolated RcsD-ABL (2 PM) or the isolated RcsDHPt domain (40 PM) revealed a higher affinity of RcsD-ABL to RcsB. A conjugate of RcsD-ABL-HPt interacting with RcsB decreased the Kd in the one-site fitting mode to 10 PM. However, the two-site fitting mode applied for RcsD-ABL-HPt/RcsB interaction resulted in a Kd (RcsD-ABL) of 2 PM and a Kd (RcsD-HPt) of 8 PM, indicating that RcsD-ABL enhances the binding of RcsD-HPt to RcsB. In the last part of the thesis, it was partly possible together with the data obtained from NMR titration experiments, PRE measurements and a HADDOCK protocol to develop a geometrical model for the interaction of RcsD with RcsB. In this model the receiver domain of RcsB interacts with the RcsD-HPt domain and the RcsB effector domain interacts with the RcsD-ABL domain. These results lead to surprising insights on the regulation of phosphorelays, since normally the effector domain binds to DNA. Here the effector domain is recognized by the newly identified RcsD-ABL domain. Prospectively, further investigations of phosphorylation affects and mutational studies will be of great interest.
- Heterologous production and characterization of selected secondary active transporters from the CDF, KUP, MOP, FNT, RhtB and SulP families (2010)
- Genes coding for membrane proteins make up 25%-30% of the genome in most organisms. Membrane proteins play an important role in cell functioning and their importance is enhanced by the fact that a large number of drugs are targeted at membrane proteins. Paradoxically, experimentally determined structures of membrane protein correspond to only about 1.7% of protein structures deposited in the protein data bank (PDB). This is largely due to the fact that membrane proteins are difficult to deal with owing to their amphipathic nature. The low abundance of membrane proteins in native tissue makes heterologous overexpression of these genes a necessity. This thesis work aimed at heterologous production of several secondary active transporter proteins for structural and functional characterizations and establishing alternative strategies to overcome the obstacles associated with heterologous overproduction. Four members of the heavy metal transporting cation diffusion facilitator (CDF) family from S. typhimurium and A. aeolicus were heterologously overproduced in E. coli and functionally characterized by an in vivo complementation assay using the zinc transport deficient E. coli GG48 strain. Out of these four, Aq_2073 from A. aeolicus was produced in large scale with substantial yield and purity sufficient to carry out structural studies. After extensive stability studies with different detergents, pHs and temperatures, the protein was subjected to 3D and 2D crystallization trials. Several C- terminal truncated constructs were made and the simultaneous crystallization screenings were carried out. These resulted in initial needle like crystals in 3D crystallization trials or optimum sized vesicles with crystalline patches in 2D crystallization trials but no obvious crystal. The protein showed significant increase in melting temperature in the presence of cadmium, when tested by differential scanning calorimetry. Another transporter, STM3880 of the potassium uptake permease (KUP) family from S. typhimurium, was heterologously overproduced in E. coli, purified by affinity chromatography, reconstituted into artificial liposome and functionally characterized by solid supported membrane based electrophysiology. In order to establish alternative expression strategies, continuous exchange cell free expression (CECF) of proteins from four different families was carried out. This method found to be aptly complementing the cell-based production approach. Targets from resistance to homoserine/threonine (RhtB) family not expressing in vivo could be expressed and purified using CECF. STM1781 of the sulfate permease (SulP) family was expressed, purified and characterized for stability while the cell-based production resulted in extensive degradation. PF0780 of multidrug/oligosaccharidyllipid/polysaccharide flippase (MOP) family was also purified to homogeneity and the stability was comparable to in vivo produced protein. Moreover, the effect of maltose binding protein (MBP) fusion at N-terminus on production and membrane integration was tested with three selected targets. The analysis revealed decreased yields in the presence of MBP if the protein had both termini in the cytoplasm. This work succeed in heterologously overproducing and establishing purification protocols for several secondary active transporters aiming at structural and functional characterization in a structural genomics framework. It also showed that integration of alternative strategies, like employing both cell-based and cell-free heterologous expression systems, expands the overall expression space coverage and in turn increases the chance of success of a structural genomics styled project.