- Medizin (6) (remove)
- Antinociceptive effects of reactive oxygen species scavengers in animal models of inflammatory and neuropathic pain (2011)
- Recent data indicate that reactive oxygen species (ROS) are produced in the nociceptive system during persistent pain and contribute to pain sensitization. Aim of this study was to investigate potential antinociceptive effects of ROS scavengers in different animal models of pain. Intrathecal injection of ROS scavengers 1-Oxyl-2,2,6,6-tetramethyl -4-hydroxypiperidine (TEMPOL) or Phenyl-N-tert-butylnitrone (PBN) significantly inhibited formalin-induced nociceptive behavior in mice, suggesting that ROS released in the spinal cord are involved in nociceptive processing. Formalin-induced nociceptive behavior was also inhibited by intraperitoneal injection of a combination of vitamin C and vitamin E, but not of vitamin C or vitamin E alone. Moreover, the combination of vitamin C and E dose-dependently attenuated mechanical allodynia in the spared nerve injury (SNI) model of neuropathic pain. The SNI-induced mechanical allodynia was also reduced after intrathecal injection of the combination of vitamin C and E, and western blot analyses revealed that vitamin C and E treatment can ameliorate the activation of p38 MAPK in the spinal cord and in DRGs. These data suggest that a combination of vitamin C and E can inhibit the nociceptive behavior in animal models of pain, and points to a role of the spinal cord as an important area of ROS production during nociceptive processing.
- Macrophage polarization by apoptotic cancer cells - a RNAi high-throughput screen and validation of interleukin 10 regulation (2012)
- Tumor-associated macrophages (TAM) are a major supportive component within neoplasms and by their plasticity promote all phases of tumor development. Mechanisms of macrophage (M Phi) attraction and differentiation to a tumor-promoting phenotype, defined among others by distinct cytokine patterns such as pronounced immunosuppressive interleukin 10 (IL-10) production, are largely unknown. However, a high apoptosis index within tumors and strong M Phi infiltration correlate with poor prognosis. Thus, I aimed at identifying signaling pathways contributing to generation of TAM-like M Phi by using supernatant of apoptotic cancer cells (ACM) as stimulus. To distinguish novel factors involved in generating TAM-like M Phi, I used an adenoviral RNAi-based approach. The primary read-out was production of IL-10. However, mediators modulating IL-10 were re-validated for their impact on regulation of the cytokines IL-6, IL-8 and IL-12. Following assay development, optimization and down-scaling to a 384-well format, primary human M Phi were transduced with 8495 constructs of the adenoviral shRNA SilenceSelect® library of Galapagos BV, followed by activation to a TAM-like phenotype using ACM. I identified 96 genes involved in IL-10 production in response to ACM and observed a pronounced cluster of 22 targets regulating IL-10 and IL-6. Principal validation of five targets of the IL-10/IL-6 cluster was performed using siRNA or pharmacological inhibitors. Among those, IL-4 receptor-alpha and cannabinoid receptor 2 were confirmed as regulators of IL-10 and IL-6 secretion. One protein identified in the screen, the nerve growth factor (NGF) receptor TRKA was chosen for in-depth validation, based on its involvement in IL-10, IL-6 and IL-12 secretion from ACM-stimulated human M Phi. TRKA possesses a cardinal role in neuronal development, but compelling evidence emerges suggesting participation of TRKA in cancer development. First experiments using pharmacological inhibitors principally confirmed the involvement of TRKA in IL-10 secretion by ACM-stimulated M Phi and revealed PI3K/AKT and to a lesser extend MAPK p38 as important signaling molecules downstream of TRKA activation. Signaling through TRKA required the presence of its ligand NGF, as indicated by NGF neutralization experiments. NGF was not induced by or present in ACM, but was constitutively secreted by M Phi. Interestingly, M Phi responded to authentic NGF with neither AKT and p38 phosphorylation nor IL-10 production. TRKA is well known to be transactivated by other receptors and in neurons its cellular localization is decisive for its function. Inhibitors of common transactivation partners did not influence IL-10 production by human M Phi. Rather, ACM-treatment provoked pronounced translocation of TRKA to the plasma membrane within 10 minutes as observed by immunofluorescence staining. Consequently, I was intrigued to clarify mechanisms of TRKA trafficking in response to ACM. The bioactive lipid sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) has been previously identified as important apoptotic cell-derived mediator involved in TAM-like M Phi polarization. Indeed, I observed S1P and src kinase involvement in ACM-mediated IL-10 induction. Furthermore, inhibition of S1P receptor (S1PR) signaling or src kinase activity prevented TRKA translocation, whereas a TRKA inhibitor or anti-NGF did not block TRKA trafficking to the plasma membrane in response to ACM. Thus, autocrine secreted NGF activated TRKA to promote IL-10 secretion, which required previous S1PR/src-dependent translocation of TRKA to the plasma membrane. Following the detailed analysis of IL-10 regulation, I was interested whether other TAM phenotype markers were influenced by ACM and whether their expression was regulated through TRKA-dependent signaling. Five of six markers were up-regulated on mRNA level by ACM, and secretion of IL-6, IL-8 and TNF-alpha was triggered. S1PR-signaling was essential for induction of all but one marker, whereas TRKA signaling was only required for cytokine secretion. Interestingly, none of the investigated TAM markers was regulated identically to IL-10, emphasizing a tight and exclusive regulation machinery of this potent immunosuppressive cytokine. Finally, I aimed to validate the in vitro findings in human ACM-stimulated M Phi. Therefore, I isolated murine TAM as well as other major mononuclear phagocyte populations from primary oncogene-induced breast cancer tissue. Indeed, TRKA-dependent signaling was required for spontaneous cytokine production selectively by primary murine TAM. Besides IL-10, the TRKA pathway was decisive for secretion of IL-6, TNF-alpha and monocyte chemotactic protein-1, indicating its relevance in cancer-associated inflammation. In summary, my findings highlight a fine-tuned regulatory system of S1P-dependent TRKA trafficking and autocrine NGF signaling in TAM biology. Both factors, S1P as well as NGF, might be interesting targets for future cancer therapy.
- Identification of translationally deregulated proteins during inflammation-associated tumorigenesis (2012)
- The translation of mRNAs into proteins is an elaborate and highly regulated process. Translational regulation primarily takes place at the level of initiation. During initation the eukaryotic initiation factors (eIFs) form a complex that binds to the 5’end of the mRNA to scan for a start codon. Once recognized, the ribosome is recruited to the mRNA and protein synthesis starts. Initiation of translation can basically occur via two distinct mechanisms, i.e. cap-dependent and cap-independent that is mediated via internal ribosome entry sites (IRESs). The former is mediated by a 5’cap structure composed of a 7-methylguanylate which is added to every mRNA during transcription and recruits the initiation complex. IRES-dependent translation involves elements within the 5’untranslated region (UTR) of the mRNA that mostly bind IRES trans-acting factors (ITAFs) which associate either with the initiation complex or with the ribosome itself and consequently allow for internal initiation of translation. During tumorigenesis the demand for proteins is increased due to rapid cell growth, which consequently requires enhanced translation. Many factors that regulate translation are overexpressed in tumors. Moreover, signaling pathways that trigger translation or further hyperactivated by the surrounding tumor microenvironment. This environment is largely generated by infiltration of immune cells such as macrophages that secrete cytokines and other mediators to promote tumorigenesis. As the effects of inflammatory conditions on the translation of specific targets are only poorly characterized, my study aimed at identifying translationally deregulated targets during inflammation-associated tumorigenesis. For this purpose, I cocultured MCF7 breast tumor cells with conditioned medium of activated monocyte-derived U937 macrophages (CM). Polysome profiling and microarray analysis identified 42 targets to be regulated at the level of translation. The results were validated by quantitative PCR and one target - early growth response 2 (EGR2) - was chosen for in depth analysis of the mechanism leading to its enhanced translation. In order to identify upstream signaling molecules causing enhanced EGR2 protein synthesis the cytokine profile of CM was analyzed and the impact of several cytokines on EGR2 translation was examined. Preincubation of CM with neutralizing antibodies revealed that lowering interleukin 6 (IL-6) had only little effect, whereas depletion of IL 1β significantly reduced EGR2 translation. This finding was corroborated by the fact that treatment with recombinant IL-1β enhanced EGR2 translation to virtually the same extend as CM. Further experiments revealed that this effect was mediated via the p38-MAPK signaling cascade. Interestingly, I observed that the mTOR inhibitor rapamycin, which reduces cap-dependent translation, specifically stimulated EGR2 translation. This result argued for an IRES-dependent mechanism that might account for EGR2 translation. The use of bicistronic reporter assays verified this hypothesis. In line with the above mentioned results, CM, IL-1β and p38-MAPK induced EGR2-IRES activity. Since IRESs commonly require ITAFs to mediate translation initiation, the binding of proteins to the 5’UTR was analyzed using mass spectrometry. Among others, several previously described ITAFs, such as polypyrimidine tract-binding protein (PTB) and heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein A1 (hnRNP-A1) were identified to directly bind to the EGR2-5’UTR. Furthermore, overexpression of hnRNP-A1 enhanced EGR2-IRES activity whereas a dominant negative form of hnRNP-A1 significantly decreased it, thus, showing its importance for EGR2 translation. In summary, my data provide evidence that EGR2 expression can be controlled by IRES-dependent translational regulation, which is responsive to an inflammatory environment. The identified mechanism may not be exclusive for one target but might be representative for gene expression regulation mechanisms during tumorigenesis. This is of special interest for the treatment of cancer patients and development of more specific therapies to reduce tumor outcome.
- Role of sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor 1 and downstream heme oxygenase-1 induction in alternative macrophage activation induced by apoptotic cells (2009)
- Macrophages show a remarkable functional plasticity, which enables them to change their phenotype in response to environmental signals. They are key players during infection by initiating inflammation through the release of proinflammatory mediators. Furthermore, macrophages contribute to the resolution of inflammation by phagocytosis of apoptotic granulocytes. Phagocytosis of apoptotic cells (AC) induces an anti-inflammatory phenotype in macrophages and protects them against apoptosis. However, mechanistic details provoking these phenotype alterations are incompletely understood. Therefore, the aim of my Ph.D. thesis was to investigate the molecular basis of anti-inflammatory macrophage polarization. In the first part of my studies, I investigated the expression of heme oxygenase (HO)-1 in macrophages following treatment with supernatants from AC. HO-1 catalyzes the first and rate-limiting step of heme degradation and potentially bears anti-inflammatory as well as anti-apoptotic potential. I was able to show biphasic upregulation of HO-1 by AC supernatants. The first phase of HO-1 induction at 6 h required activation of p38 MAPK and was accomplished by the bioactive lipid sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) engaging S1P receptor 1 (S1P1). However, the second wave of HO-1 induction at 24 h was attributed to autocrine signaling of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) A, whose expression was facilitated by S1P. The release of VEGFA from macrophages was STAT1-dependent, whereas VEGFA itself acted on the macrophage HO-1 promoter via STAT1/STAT3 heterodimer binding. Knockdown of HO-1 revealed its relevance in promoting enhanced expression of the anti-apoptotic proteins B cell leukemia/lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2) and B cell leukaemia/lymphoma-x long (Bcl-XL), as well as the anti-inflammatory adenosine receptor A2A. MHC II and indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase expression were also affected by ACsupernanatants, but were not HO-1 dependent. Unexpectedly, S1P1 was also upregulated following treatment with AC supernatants. Thus, I considered whether S1P1 induction could specifically be mediated by alternative macrophage activating factors. The expression of S1P1 was enhanced in the presence of the alternative activation stimuli IL-4 as well as IL-10, whereas it was unchanged following incubations with LPS, interferon-g or S1P. My next aim was to investigate the expression of the different S1P receptor isoforms in macrophages following treatment with supernatants form AC. While the expressions of S1P1 as well as S1P3 were induced by exposure to supernatants from AC, S1P2 expression was unaffected. As S1P1/3 and S1P2 are conflictively involved in the regulation of cell migration, I asked for a correlation between increased S1P receptor expression and enhanced migration rate. Indeed, macrophages showed enhanced motility following treatment with supernatants form AC, which was inhibited in S1P1 knockout macrophages. In summary, my findings indicate that HO-1, which is induced by AC-derived S1P, is critically involved in macrophage polarization towards an alternatively activated macrophage phenotype. S1P1 seems to represent a central checkpoint during macrophage activation. On the one hand, S1P1 is induced by supernatants form AC and promotes migration of macrophages. On the other hand, it mediates the induction of HO-1, which is accompanied by antiinflammatory as well as anti-apoptotic signaling. Furthermore, my studies provide evidence that upregulation of HO-1 and S1P1 in macrophages may contribute to the resolution of inflammation by establishing an anti-inflammatory macrophage phenotype and provoking macrophage migration along the vascular S1P gradient out of an inflammatory environment into the lymph.
- Regulation of arginase II expression in macrophages by supernatants of apoptotic cells (2010)
- Apoptotic cell (AC)-derived factors alter the physiology of macrophages (M Phi s) towards a regulatory phenotype that is characterized by enhanced production of anti-inflammatory mediators, an attenuated pro-inflammatory cytokine profile and reduced nitric oxide (NO) formation. Impaired NO production in response to ACs or AC-conditioned medium (CM) is facilitated by arginase II (ARG II) expression, which competes with inducible NO synthase for L-arginine. In this study, I investigated the signaling pathway that allowed CM to upregulate ARG II in M Phi s. A sphingolipid, further identified as sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P), was required but authentic S1P alone only produced small effects. S1P acted synergistically with a so far unidentified factor to elicit high ARG II expression. S1P signaled through S1P receptor 2 (S1P2), since the S1P2-antagonist JTE013 and siRNA knock-down of S1P2 prevented ARG II upregulation. Further, inhibition and knock-down of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 5 (ERK5) attenuated CM-mediated ARG II protein induction. Exploring ERK5-dependent transcriptional regulation, promoter deletion and luciferase reporter analysis of the murine ARG II promoter (mpARG II) suggested the involvement of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) responsive element binding protein (CREB). This was confirmed by EMSA analysis and decoyoligonucleotides scavenging CREB, thereby preventing it from activating target genes and thus, blocking ARG II expression. I concluded that AC-derived S1P binds to S1P2 and acts synergistically with other factors to activate ERK5 and concomitantly CREB. This signaling cascade shapes an anti-inflammatory M Phi phenotype by ARG II induction. Further investigations of ERK5-dependent CREB activation suggested an indirect mechanism implying that ERK5 inhibited phosphodiesterase 4 (PDE4) and thus, prevented hydrolysis of cAMP. Since S1P-dependent ERK5 activation presumably inhibited PDE4, subsequent cAMP accumulation led to enhanced PKA activity and CREB-mediated transcription. The unidentified factor(s) besides S1P probably provoked the required elevation of cAMP production in M Phi s. Indeed, pharmacological inhibition of cAMP-producing adenylyl cyclase with SQ22536 as well as cAMP-dependent protein kinase A (PKA) with KT5720 suggested cAMP to be involved in CM-mediated ARG II up-regulation. Furthermore, forskolin-dependent activation of adenyly cyclase and simultaneous rolipram-mediated inhibition of PDE4 mimicked CM-induced ARG II expression. Considering these findings, I propose that one or several unidentified factors in CM provoke cAMP production in M Phi s. In parallel, AC-derived S1P activates ERK5, which inhibits PDE4-dependent cAMP hydrolysis, further raising intracellular cAMP levels. Thus, unrestricted continuous cAMP signaling via PKA/CREB, results in a time-dependent and sustained ARG II induction.
- Die Bedeutung des Hypoxie-induzierbaren Faktors 1 (HIF-1) in Makrophagen für den Schutz vor oxidativem Stress und die Tumorangiogenese (2011)
- Hypoxie und Stickstoffmonoxid (NO) sind wichtige Mediatoren von akuten und chronischen Erkrankungen sowie auch von Tumoren. Makrophagen spielen eine zentrale Rolle bei der Eliminierung von Pathogenen aber auch bei der Induktion, Entwicklung und Metastasierung von Tumoren. Wenn Makrophagen in verletztes Gewebe, einen Entzündungsherd oder in einen Tumor einwandern, sind sie einem Umfeld ausgesetzt, das durch Hypoxie und die Produktion von NO und ROS erheblichen Stress auf die Zellen ausübt. Dieser Zellstress wirkt sich auf das Redoxgleichgewicht und damit auf die Signaltransduktion der Zellen aus. Im ersten Teil meiner Arbeit wurde mittels einer Micoarray-Analyse die Interaktion von hypoxischen und NO-vermittelten Signalen in Makrophagen und deren Bedeutung für die Zellen im entzündlichen Umfeld ermittelt. In RAW 264.7 Makrophagen wurden 196 Gene als Hypoxie-reguliert 85 Gene als DETA-NO-reguliert identifiziert. Die Mehrzahl der Gene (292) wurde jedoch von einer Kombination aus Hypoxie und DETA-NO reguliert und lediglich 14 Gene wurden in allen drei Ansätzen identifiziert. Aus der Gruppe der durch Hypoxie-und DETA-NO-regulierten Transkripte zeigte Sesn2 als Peroxiredoxin (Prdx) Reparatur-Protein eine signifikant höhere Induktion durch DETA-NO im Vergleich zur Hypoxie. Mit Hilfe von HIF-1α-/- Maus-Peritonealmakrophagen wurde Sesn2 als sowohl Hypoxie- und NO-reguliertes HIF-1α Zielgen identifiziert. Eine Vorinkubation der RAW 264.7 Zellen mit DETA-NO reduzierte die Bildung von überoxidiertem, inaktivem Prdx durch H2O2. Die Reduktion an überoxidiertem Prdx durch eine Vorinkubation mit DETA-NO konnte mittels eines siRNA knockdowns auf Sesn2 zurückgeführt und Sesn2 als Prdx-Reduktase etabliert werden. Diese Ergebnisse zeigen, dass eine Vorinkubation von Makrophagen mit NO die Akkumulation von Sesn2 HIF-1α-abhängig induziert und somit Prdxs vor einer Überoxidierung durch ROS schützt. Die Aktivierung von HIF-1α durch Hypoxie oder NO kann somit die Vitalität von Zellen in einem entzündlichen Mikroumfeld verbessern. Im zweiten Teil meiner Arbeit wurde mittels konditioneller knockouts von HIF-2α und HIF-2α in myeloiden Zellen deren Auswirkung auf die Tumorentwicklung im PyMT Tumormodell untersucht. Die Tumorbelastung der Tiere zeigte in Folge der myeloiden knockouts von 1α und HIF-2α nur eine leichte Tendenz zu geringerer Tumorbelastung. Im Gegensatz zum myeloiden HIF-2α knockout beschleunigte der knockout von HIF-1α die Tumorinzidenz in PyMT Mäusen verlangsamte jedoch die Tumorentwicklung. Zusätzlich führte der myeloide knockout von HIF-1α und HIF-2α zu verstärkter Tumorhypoxie. Dies konnte auf eine Beeinträchtigung der Tumorangiogenese in den Tumorkernzonen zurückgeführt werden, wobei die Angiogenese durch das Fehlen von myeloidem HIF-1α am stärksten beeinträchtigt wurde. Während der Entstehung eines Tumors und dessen Progression werden die Tumorumgebung, das sogenannte Stroma, und der Tumor selbst von unterschiedlichen Immunzellen infiltriert. Der myeloide knockout von HIF-1α hatte erheblichen Einfluss auf die Immunzellverteilung im Tumorgewebe. Es wanderten weniger Makrophagen und B Zellen in den Tumor ein, wohingegen die Zahl von CD4+ T Helfer Zellen signifikant erhöht war. Zusätzlich wurde die Reifung der Dendritischen Zellen (DCs) durch den myeloiden knockout von HIF-1α erheblich beeinträchtigt. Der myeloide knockout von HIF-2α resultierte lediglich in einer verminderten Zahl an B Zellen und T Zellen im Tumorgewebe. Wildtyp und HIF-2α-/- Makrophagen, die hypoxische Tumorareale infiltrierten wiesen eine erhöhte Akkumulation von HIF-1α Protein auf. Makrophagen mit einem knockout von HIF-1α zeigten daraus folgend keine Akkumulation des HIF-1α Proteins in hypoxischen Tumorarealen. Darüber hinaus wurde Ym1 in allen Makrophagen-Genotypen im Tumorgewebe gleichstark exprimiert, wohingegen die Expression von iNOS im Tumorgewebe durch den myeloiden knockout von HIF-1α und HIF-2α verringert war. Die kolokalisierte Expression von iNOS und Ym1 in den Tumor-assoziierten Makrophagen deutet auf eine sowohl pro- als auch anti-inflammatorische Aktivierung der Makrophagen im Tumor hin. Die Ergebnisse der Immunzellverteilung von Makrophagen, unreifen DCs, CD4+ T Helfer Zellen sowie auch die verminderte iNOS-Expression weisen jedoch auf ein eher anti-inflammatorisches Tumormileu der PyMT+/-/HIF-1α -/- Tiere hin. Dies zeigt, dass HIF-1α in Makrophagen an der Entstehung eines inflammatorischen Tumormileus beteiligt ist.