Year of publication
- 2010 (3) (remove)
- Therapy of hemorrhagic shock with following resuscitation-induced liver injury : in vivo study (2010)
- Shock resulting from life-threatening blood-loss (hemorrhagic shock) represents the most frequent injury pattern after a traumatic insult. Hemorrhagic shock induces inflammatory changes, characterized by highly complex pathophysiological pathways often resulting in death. In this study, we establish an experimental in vivo model of H/R in rats and study the mechanisms which determine the hepatic injury after H/R. Furthermore, we show that hemorrhagic shock with following resuscitation is accompanied with release of systemic and local pro-inflammatory mediators, increased infiltration of hepatic neutrophils in the liver, increased oxidative and nitrosative stress, enhanced cell death of both types, apoptosis and necrosis, conspicuous cytoskeletal rearrangements, loss of hepatic integrity and finally high general mortality rates, up to 80%. In addition, the effects of two potential therapeutic interventions to prevent the H/R induced liver injury are explored in a model of H/R in rats. First, the role of JNK and its inhibition by D-JNKI-1 in preservation of hepatic integrity following H/R was analyzed. Second, we investigated the potential of simvastatin to prevent the disturbed inflammatory response and hepatic injury after H/R. The effects of both therapeutic interventions were studied by looking at several inflammatory parameters, markers of oxidative and nitrosative stress, cytoskeleton integrity, microcirculatory parameters, underlying signaling cascades, liver damage and mortality. Highly specific blockade of JNK with the potent, inhibitory peptide D-JNKI-1 revealed the crucial role of the JNK signaling pathway in the H/R induced pathophysiology and strong protective effects of DJNKI- 1 in H/R induced liver injury, when the peptide was applied before and even after hemorrhagic shock. The other therapeutic intervention tested in this study was the use of simvastatin which also revealed protective effects after H/R and even a remarkable improvement in survival after H/R. We show that H/R induced release of pro-inflammatory cytokines, hepatic PMNL infiltration, increased oxidative and nitrosative stress, apoptosis and necrosis can be diminished by treatment with D-JNKI-1 but also with simvastatin in vivo. Furthermore, simvastatin reduces H/R induced cytoskelatal rearrangements, loss of liver integrity and the mortality rate after H/R. The key pathway which underlies these beneficial effects of simvastatin is the Rho kinase pathway. Identification of both mechanisms as well as the effectiveness of both substances provide new insights in the close interaction between hypoxia and the immune system and present a promising basis for the anti-inflammatory, hepatoprotective treatment after H/R.
- Biodegradation and elimination of industrial wastewater in the context of whole effluent assessment (2010)
- The focus of this thesis is on the assessment of the degradability of indirectly discharged wastewater in municipal treatment plants and on assessing indirectly discharged effluents by coupling the Zahn-Wellens test with effect-based bioassays. With this approach persistent toxicity of an indirectly discharged effluent can be detected and attributed to the respective emission source. In the first study 8 wastewater samples from different industrial sectors were analysed according to the “Whole-Effluent Assessment“ (WEA) approach developed by OSPAR. In another study this concept has been applied with 20 wastewater samples each from paper manufacturing and metal surface treating industry. In the first study generally low to moderate ecotoxic effects of wastewater samples have been determined. One textile wastewater sample was mutagenic in the Ames test and genotoxic in the umu test. The source of these effects could not be identified. After treatment in the Zahn-Wellens test the mutagenicity in the Ames test was eliminated completely while in the umu test genotoxicity could still be observed. Another wastewater sample from chemical industry was mutagenic in the Ames test. The mutagenicity with this wastewater sample was investigated by additional chemical analysis and backtracking. A nitro-aromatic compound (2-methoxy-4-nitroaniline) used for batchwise azo dye synthesis and its transformation products are the probable cause for the mutagenic effects analysed. Testing the mother liquor from dye production confirmed that this partial wastewater stream was mutagenic in the Ames test. The wasteweater samples from paper manufacturing industry of the second study were not toxic or genotoxic in the acute Daphnia test, fish egg test and umu test. In the luminescent bacteria test, moderate toxicity was observed. Wastewater of four paper mills demonstrated elevated or high algae toxicity, which was in line with the results of the Lemna test, which mostly was less sensitive than the algae test. The colouration of the wastewater samples in the visible band did not correlate with algae toxicity and thus is not considered as its primary origin. The algae toxicity in wastewater of the respective paper factory could also not be explained with the thermomechanically produced groundwood pulp (TMP) partial stream. Presumably other raw materials such as biocides might be the source of algae toxicity. In the algae test, often flat dose–response relationships and growth promotion at higher dilution factors have been observed, indicating that several effects are overlapping. The wastewater samples from the printed circuit board and electroplating industries (all indirectly discharged) were biologically pre-treated for 7 days in the Zahn–Wellens test before ecotoxicity testing. Thus, persistent toxicity could be discriminated from non-persistent toxicity caused, e.g. by ammonium or readily biodegradable compounds. With respect to the metal concentrations, all samples were not heavily polluted. The maximum conductivity of the samples was 43,700 micro S cm -1 and indicates that salts might contribute to the overall toxicity. Half of the wastewater samples proved to be biologically well treatable in the Zahn–Wellens test with COD elimination above 80%, whilst the others were insufficiently biodegraded (COD elimination 28–74%). After the pre-treatment in the Zahn–Wellens test, wastewater samples from four companies were extremely ecotoxic especially to algae. Three wastewater samples were genotoxic in the umu test. Applying the rules for salt correction to the test results following the German Wastewater Ordinance, only a small part of toxicity could be attributed to salts. In one factory, the origin of ecotoxicity has been attributed to the organosulphide dimethyldithiocarbamate (DMDTC) used as a water treatment chemical for metal precipitation. The assumption, based on rough calculation of input of the organosulphide into the wastewater, was confirmed in practice by testing its ecotoxicity at the corresponding dilution ratio after pre-treatment in the Zahn–Wellens test. The results show that bioassays are a suitable tool for assessing the ecotoxicological relevance of these complex organic mixtures. The combination of the Zahn–Wellens test followed by the performance of ecotoxicity tests turned out to be a cost-efficient suitable instrument for the evaluation of indirect dischargers and considers the requirements of the IPPC Directive.
- Ecotoxicological assessment of advanced wastewater treatment technologies (2010)
- Wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) do not eliminate micropollutants completely and are thus important point sources for these substances. In particular, concerns about en-docrine disrupting compounds in WWTP effluents give rise to the implementation of advanced treatment steps for the elimination of trace organic contaminants. The present study investigated ozonation (O3) and activated carbon treatment (AC) at two WWTPs. For an ecotoxicological assessment at WWTP Regensdorf, conventionally treated wastewater, wastewater after ozonation, and ozonated wastewater after sand filtration were evaluated in parallel via the fish early life stage toxicity test (FELST) using rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Additionally, a comparative toxicity evalu-ation of ozonated and activated carbon treated effluents was performed at the pilot scale treatment plant in Neuss (WWTP Neuss). For this purpose, four invertebrate tests and one higher plant toxicity test were selected to assess potential biological effects on or-ganisms [Lemna minor growth inhibition test, chironomid toxicity test with Chironomus riparius, Lumbriculus variegatus toxicity test, comet assay with haemolymph of the zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha), reproduction test with Potamopyrgus antipo-darum]. All in vivo assays were performed on site at the treatment plants in flow-through test systems. Furthermore, the present study investigated the effects of ozona-tion and activated carbon treatment on endocrine activities [estrogenicity, anti-estrogenicity, androgenicity, anti-androgenicity, aryl-hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) agonistic activity] with yeast based bioassays using solid phase extracted water samples. To evaluate the removal of in vitro non-specific toxicity, a cytotoxicity assay using a rat cell line was applied. The FELST at WWTP Regensdorf revealed a considerable developmental retardation of test organisms exposed to ozonated WW. This was accompanied by a significant decrease in body weight and length compared to reference water, to the conventionally treated WW, and to the ozonated water after sand filtration. Hence sand filtration obvi-ously prevents from adverse ecotoxicological effects of ozonation. An additional test – starting with yolk-sac larvae – resulted in a significant reduction of vitellogenin levels in fish exposed to ozonated wastewater compared to fish reared in conventionally treat-ed wastewater. This demonstrates the effective removal of estrogenic activity by ozonation. At WWTP Neuss, the reproduction test with the mudsnail P. antipodarum exhibited a decreased reproductive output after advanced treatment compared to conventional treatment. This indicates an effective estrogenicity removal by ozonation and activated carbon treatment and is confirmed by results of the yeast estrogen screen with a reduc-tion of in vitro estrogenic activity by > 75%. The L. variegatus test revealed a signifi-cantly enhanced toxicity after ozonation compared to conventional treatment, whereas this effect was reduced following subsequent sand filtration. When ozonation was applied, a significantly increased genotoxicity was observed, detected with the comet assay using haemolymph of the zebra mussel. Again, this effect was removed by subsequent sand filtration to the level of conventional treatment. Activated carbon treatment even resulted in a significant reduction of genotoxicity. At both treatment plants, adverse effects after ozonation may have been a result of the formation of toxic oxidation by-products. However, sand filtration reduced toxication effects, indicating that these oxidation by-products are readily degradable or adsorbable. The results point out that, in any case, ozonation should not be applied without subsequent biologically active post treatment appropriate for oxidation by-products removal (e.g. sand filtration). However, only activated carbon achieved a toxicity reduction compared to the conventional treated wastewater. Thus, it cannot be excluded that po-tential beneficial effects due to ozonation might be masked by residual toxic oxidation by-products passing the sand filter or ozonation is not as effective in toxicity removal as PAC treatment. The yeast based assays with solid phase extracted samples revealed an effective endo-crine activity removal during ozonation and activated carbon filtration (estrogenicity: 77 – 99%, anti-androgenicity: 63 – 96%, AhR agonistic activity: 79 – 82%). The cyto-toxicity assay exhibited a 32% removal of non-specific toxicity after ozonation com-pared to conventional treatment. Ozonation in combination with sand filtration reduced cytotoxic effects by 49%, indicating that sand filtration contributes to the removal of toxicants. Activated carbon treatment was the most effective technology for cytotoxici-ty removal (61%). Sample evaporation reduced cytotoxic effects by 52% (after activated carbon treatment) to 73% (after ozonation), demonstrating that volatile substances contribute considerably to toxic effects, particularly after ozone treatment. These results confirm an effective removal or transformation of toxicants with receptor mediated mode of action and non-specific toxicants during both investigated treatment steps. However, due to the limited extractability, polar ozonation by-products were neglected for toxicity analysis, and hence non-specific toxicity after O3 is underestimated. In the long run, only on-site comparisons at WW receiving water bodies (e.g. communi-ty analysis of fish, macroinvertebrates, plants, microorganisms) – before and after up-grading WWTPs – allow drawing environmentally relevant conclusions regarding bene-fits and risks of advanced WW treatment methods. Conclusively, the benefits and possible negative impacts have to be carefully evaluated to prove that not more environmental impact will be induced than removed by advanced treatment technologies as each additional treatment requires considerable amounts of energy, resources, and infrastructure facilities. Accordingly, comprehensive sustainable approaches for pollution prevention and wastewater treatment (e.g. source control and source separation) are preferable compared to end-of-pipe treatment systems.