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- BAG3 induction ist required to mitigate proteotoxicity via selective autophagy following inhibition of constitutive protein degradation pathways (2013)
- Protein quality control systems (PQC), i.e. UPS and aggresome-autophagy pathway, have been suggested to be a promising target in cancer therapy. Simultaneous pharmacological inhibition of both pathways have shown increase efficacy in various tumors, such as ovarian and colon carcinoma. Here, we investigate the effect of concomitant inhibition of 26S proteasome by FDA-approved inhibitor Bortezomib, and HDAC6, as key mediator of the aggresome-autophagy system, by the highly specific inhibitor ST80 in rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) cell lines. We demonstrated that simultaneous inhibition of 26S proteasome and selective aggresome-autophagy pathway significantly increases apoptosis in all tested RMS cell lines. Interestingly, we observed that a subpopulation of RMS cells was able to survive the co-treatment and, upon drug removal, to recover similarly to untreated cells. In this study, we identified co-chaperone BAG3 as the key mediator of this recovery: BAG3 is transcriptionally up-regulated specifically in the ST80/Bortezomib surviving cells and mediates clearance of cytotoxic protein aggregates by selective autophagy. Impairment of the autophagic pathway during the recovery phase, both by conditional knock-down of ATG7 or by inhibition of lysosomal degradation by BafylomicinA1, triggers accumulation of insoluble protein aggregates, loss of cell recovery and cell death similarly to stable short harpin RNA (shRNA) BAG3 knock-down. Our results are the first demonstration that BAG3 mediated selective autophagy is engaged to cope with proteotoxicity induced by simultaneous inhibition of constitutive PQC systems in cancer cell lines during cell recovery. Moreover, our data give new insights in the regulation of constitutive and on demand PQC mechanisms pointing to BAG3 as a promising target in RMS therapy.
- Characterization of the Chikungunya virus entry process and the development of novel antiviral strategies (2014)
- The Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a mosquito-transmitted alphavirus that causes high fever, rash, and recurrent arthritis in humans. The majority of symptoms disappear after about one week. However, arthritis can last for months or even years (in about 30% of cases), which makes people unable to work during this period. The virus is endemic in Sub-Saharan Africa, the Indian Ocean islands, India, and Southeast Asia. It has additionally caused several large outbreaks in the last few years, affecting millions of people. The mortality rate is very low (0.1%), but the infection rates are high (sometimes 30%) and the number of asymptomatic cases is rare (about 15%). The first CHIKV outbreak in a country with a moderate climate was detected in Italy in 2007. Furthermore, the virus has spread to the Caribbean in late 2013. Due to climate change, globalization, and vector switching, the virus will most likely continue to cause new worldwide outbreaks. Additionally, more temperate regions of the world like Europe or the USA, which have recently reported their first cases, will likely become targets. Alarmingly, there is no specific treatment or vaccination against CHIKV available so far. The cell entry process of CHIKV is also not understood in detail, and was thusly the focus of study for this project. The E2 envelope protein is responsible for cell attachment and entry. It consists of the domain C, located close to the viral membrane, domain A, in the center of the protein, and domain B, at the distal end, prominently exposed on the viral surface. In this work, the important role of cell surface glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) for CHIKV cell attachment was uncovered. GAGs consist of long linear chains of heavily sulfated disaccharide units and can be covalently linked to membrane associated proteins. They play an important role in different cell signaling pathways. So far, solely cell culture passage has revealed an increased GAG-dependency of CHIKV due to mutations in E2 domain A, which was associated with virus attenuation in vivo. However, in this work it could be shown that cell surface GAGs promote CHIKV entry using non-cell culture adapted CHIKV envelope (Env) proteins. Transduction and infection of cell surface GAG-deficient pgsA-745 cells with CHIKV Env pseudotyped vector particles (VPs) and with wild-type CHIKV revealed decreased transduction and replication rates. Furthermore, cell entry and transduction rates of GAG-containing cells were also dose-dependently decreased in the presence of soluble GAGs. In contrast, transduction of pgsA-745 cells with CHIKV Env pseudotyped VPs was enhanced by the addition of soluble GAGs. This data suggests a mechanism by which GAGs activate CHIKV particles for subsequent binding to a cellular receptor. However, at least one GAG-independent entry pathway might exist, as CHIKV entry could not be totally inhibited by soluble GAGs and entry into pgsA-745 was, albeit at a lower rate, still possible. Further binding experiments using recombinant CHIKV E2 domains A, B, and C suggest that domain B is responsible for the GAG binding, domain A possibly for receptor binding, and domain C is not involved in cell binding. These results are in line with the geometry of CHIKV Env on the viral surface. They altogether reveal that GAG binding promotes viral cell entry and that the E2 domain B plays a central role for this mechanism. As no vaccine against CHIKV has been approved so far, another goal of this project was to test new vaccination approaches. It has been published that a single linear epitope of E2 is the target of the majority of early neutralizing antibodies against CHIKV in patients. Artificial E2-derived proteins were created, expressed in E.coli, and successfully purified. They consisted of 5 repeats of the mentioned linear epitope (L), the surface exposed regions of domain A linked by glycine-serine linkers (sA), the whole domain B plus a part of the β-ribbon connector (B+), or a combination of these 3 modules. Vaccination experiments revealed that B+ was necessary and sufficient to induce a neutralizing immune response in mice, with the protein sAB+ yielding the best results. sAB+, as a protein vaccine, efficiently and significantly reduced viral titers in mice upon CHIKV challenge, which was not the case for recombinant Modified Vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA; MVA-CHIKV-sAB+), as a vaccine platform expressing the same protein. These experiments show that a small rationally designed CHIKV Env derived protein might, after optimization of some vaccination parameters, be sufficient as a safe, easy-to-produce, and cheap CHIKV vaccine. Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) is a catechin found in green tea and was, in this work, found to inhibit the CHIKV life cycle at the entry state in in vitro experiments using CHIKV Env VPs and wild-type virus. EGCG was recently published to inhibit attachment of several viruses to cell surface GAGs, which is in line with the role for GAGs in CHIKV entry revealed in this work. EGCG might serve as a lead compound for the development of a small molecule treatment against CHIKV.
- Characterization of the poxviral 68k ankyrin-like protein (2009)
- Orthopoxviruses are large DNA viruses that replicate within the cytoplasm of infected cells encoding over a hundred different proteins. The orthopoxviral 68k ankyrin‐like protein (68k‐ank) is highly conserved among orthopoxviruses, and this study aimed at elucidating the function of 68k‐ank. The 68k‐ank protein is composed of four ankyrin repeats (ANK) and an F‐box‐like domain; both motifs are known proteinprotein interaction domains. The F‐box is found in cellular F‐box proteins (FBP), crucial components of cellular E3 ubiquitin (Ub) ligases. With yeast‐two‐hybrid screens and subsequent co‐immunoprecipitation analyses, it was possible to identify S‐phase kinase‐associated protein 1a (Skp1a) as a cellular counterpart of 68k‐ank via binding to the F‐box‐like domain. Additionally, Cullin‐1 was co‐precipitated, suggesting the formation of a viral‐cellular SCF E3 Ub ligase complex. Modified Vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) ‐ being attenuated and unable to replicate in most mammalian cell lines due to a block in morphogenesis – nevertheless, expresses its complete genetic information attributing to its properties as promising vector vaccine. Conservation of 68k‐ank as the only ANK protein encoded by MVA implied a substantial role of this viral factor. Hence, its function in the viral life cycle was assessed by studying a 68k‐ank knock‐out MVA. A mutant phenotype manifested in nonpermissive mammalian cells characterized by a block succeeding viral early gene expression and by a reduced ability of the virus to shutoff host protein synthesis. Studies with MVA encoding a 68k‐ank F‐box‐like domain truncated protein revealed that viral‐cellular SCF complex formation and maintenance of viral gene expression are two distinct, unrelated functions fulfilled by 68k‐ank. Moreover, K1, a well‐described VACV host range factor of the ANK protein family, is able to complement 68k‐ank function. This suggests that gene expression of MVA putatively depends on the ANKs encoded in 68k‐ank. In addition to the important findings in vitro, first virulence studies with the mouse pox agent, ectromelia virus (ECTV) deleted of the 68k‐ank ortholog (C11) suggested that this factor contributes to ECTV virulence in vivo.
- Development of lentiviral vectors for the gene therapy of HIV infection (2010)
- Drug toxicity and viral resistance limit long-term efficacy of antiviral drug treatment for HIV infection. Thus, alternative therapies need to be explored. Previously, group of “Prof. von Laer” tested the infusion of T lymphocytes transduced with a retroviral vector (M87o) that expresses an HIV entry inhibitory peptide (maC46). Gene-modified autologous T cells were infused into 10 HIV-infected patients with advanced disease and multidrug resistant virus during antiretroviral combination therapy. T cell infusions were tolerated well with no severe side effects. A significant increase of CD4 counts was observed post infusion. At the end of the one-year follow-up, the CD4 counts of all patients were still around or above baseline. Gene-modified cells could be detected in peripheral blood, lymph nodes and bone marrow throughout the oneyear follow-up, whereby marking levels correlated with the cell dose. No significant changes of viral load were observed during the first four months. Four of the seven patients that changed their antiviral drug regimen thereafter responded with a significant decline in plasma viral load. In conclusion, the transfer of gene-modified cells was safe, led to sustained levels of gene marking and may improve immune competence in HIV-infected patients with advanced disease and multidrug resistant virus. However, the low level of gene marking and the lack of substantial long-term in vivo accumulation of gene-protected cells observed in this trial clearly demonstrate the requirement for new vectors with new strategy. In this thesis self‐inactivating lentiviral vectors harboring internal promoters and RNA elements were therefore evaluated for their potential use in a clinical gene‐therapy trial. The results from this work provide the basis for the selection of a suitable candidate vector for extensive preclinical testing. Apart from being capable of transducing non‐dividing cells, lentiviral vectors incorporate a number of additional features that are of potential value for gene therapeutic applications. These include a larger packaging capacity, higher titers than γ‐retroviral vectors and, most importantly, a reduced risk of deregulating cellular genes due to its natural integration profile. The use of internal promoters to drive expression of the therapeutic transgene maC46 should further improve the safety profile of these new‐generation vectors, while an additional artificial splice acceptor (SA) into the 5‟UTR of the transgene over all elevate transgene expression. The rationale for this is that hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells will be Summary 98 protected from enhancer‐mediated transactivation effects and also from potential side effects due to the aberrant expression of maC46 while at the same time the full clinical benefit for the patients is maintained. In order to find a suitable candidate for preclinical studies, two candidate therapeutic vectors harboring different regulatory elements were selected based on results from pilot experiments. The internal promoters used to drive expression of codon optimized maC46 were the PGK promoter and MPSV promoter. This work focuses on the transgene expression levels in lymphoid cells and antiviral activity. The issues of long term expression, propensity to methylation mediated silencing of the promoters, and genotoxicity were also touched. In a first step the performance of different vectors was evaluated in the human T cell lines. Based on promising data from ex vivo human peripheral blood mononuclear cells, the vector carrying the MPSV promoter along with intron were selected for in vivo transplantation experiments. In summary, the ex vivo data suggested the long term survival of lentiviral gene modified cells, along with maintained expression of introduced genes. It was observed that the expression of these constructs depends strongly on the activation and differentiation status of the targeted T cells. This regulation was not linked to any specific promotor. In vivo study shows that maC46 can be introduced into murine multiple hematopoietic lineages via lentiviral vector and expressed at high levels in their mulilineage progeny, without altering the hematopoiesis. There was no sign of any kind of hematopoietic or lymphoid malignancies. Although gene-modified lymphocytes persisted in-vivo, the downregulation of transgene expression was consistent with the ex-vivo observation. In contrast to that the T cells transplanted group showed delayed engraftment of donor cells and there was no expression of C46 in blood and lymphatic organs. . In conclusion, when considering HIV gene therapy focusing CD4+ T cells, potential problems of T cell activation status as related to the desired clinical effect must be addressed. These results might open the way for a gene therapy targeting mainly or exclusively activated T cells and could be exploited for immunostimulatory as well as suppressive approaches.
- Effect of chromatin modeling by histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDIs) on hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) fate (2005)
- Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is characterized by the accumulation of a large number of abnormal, immature blast cells. Recently, histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDIs) received considerable interest on the ground of their ability to overcome the differentiation block in these leukemic blasts regardless of the primary genetic alteration, an effect achieved either alone or in combination with differentiating agents, such as all-trans retinoic acid (t-RA). Valproic acid (VPA), a potent HDI, is now under clinical evaluation owing to its potent differentiation effect on transformed hematopoietic progenitor cells and leukemic blasts from AML patients. Conversely, in a clinical study by Bug et al., the favorable effects of the combination treatment with t-RA/VPA in advanced acute myeloid leukemia patients were reported to be most likely due to an enhancement of nonleukemic myelopoiesis and the suppression of malignant hematopoiesis rather than enforced differentiation of the leukemic cells. Based on the hypothesis that VPA influences normal hematopoiesis, the effect of chromatin modeling through VPA on HSCs was investigated with respect to differentiation, proliferation as well as self-renewal in the present study. It has been shown that valproic acid increases both proliferation and self-renewal of HSC. It accelerates cell cycle progression of HSC accompanied by a down-regulation of p21cip-1/waf-1. Furthermore, valproic acid inhibits GSK3B by phosphorylation on Ser9 accompanied by an activation of the Wnt signaling pathway as well as by an up-regulation of HoxB4, a target gene of Wnt signaling. Both are known to directly stimulate the proliferation of HSC and to expand the HSC pool. To sum up, valproic acid, a potent histone deacetylase inhibitor known to induce differentiation and/or apoptosis in leukemic blasts, stimulates the proliferation and self-renewal of hematopoietic stem cells. Therefore, the data reported in this study suggest to reconsider the role of histone deacetylase inhibitors from a differentiation inducer to a coadjuvant factor for increasing the response to conventional therapy in acute myeloid leukemia.
- Hematopoietic stem cell differentiation and lineage selection control by GADD45G (2015)
- Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) have the unique abilities of life-long self-renewal and multi-lineage differentiation. They are routinely used in BM or stem cell transplantations to reconstitute the blood system of patients suffering from malignant or monogenic blood disorders. For an adequate production of each blood cell lineage in homeostasis and under stress conditions, the fate choice of HSCs to either self-renew or to differentiate must be strictly controlled. The incomplete understanding of the molecular mechanisms that control this balance makes it still impossible to maintain or expand undifferentiated HSCs in culture for advanced regenerative medical purposes. The aim of this thesis was the identification and molecular characterisation of mechanisms that control the decision of HSCs to self-renew or to differentiate, and how they are connected to extrinsic cytokine signaling control. Prior to this thesis, a screening for genes upregulated under self-renewal promoting thrombopoietin (TPO) signaling via the transcription factors STAT5A/B in HSCs was conducted, and Growth arrest and DNA damage inducible 45 gamma (Gadd45g) was one of the regulated genes. GADD45G was described as stress sensor, DNA-damage response and tumor suppressor gene, that is epigenetically silenced in many solid tumors and leukemia. Furthermore, Gadd45g is upregulated in aged HSCs with impaired multi-lineage reconstitution abilities, and it is induced by differentiation promoting cytokines in GM-committed cells. However, the function of GADD45G in LT-HSCs was unknown. All these points warrant further investigation to unravel the function of GADD45G on early cell fate decisions of HSCs in hematopoiesis. The expression of Gadd45g was stimulated by hematopoietic cytokines TPO, IL3 and IL6 both in HSCs and MPPs, making GADD45G an interesting target to focus on. To simulate the cytokine-induced expression GADD45G was lentivirally transduced in HSCs. Surprisingly, GADD45G did not induce cell cycle arrest or cell death in hematopoietic cells neither in vitro nor in vivo, as reported in many cell lines. Instead GADD45G revealed an enhanced and markedly accelerated differentiation of HSCs into mainly myelomonocytic cells, similar as observed for IL3 and IL6 containing cultures. Also in vivo, GADD45G rapidly initiates the differentiation program in HSCs at the expense of self-renewal and long-term engraftment, as shown by serial HSC transplantation experiments. Along the same line, HSCs from Gadd45g-knock out mice exhibited an increased self-renewal. In vitro, Gadd45g-/- progenitors showed higher and prolonged colony formation potential and slower expansion after cytokine stimulation. The loss of Gadd45g increased HSC self-renewal and improved repopulation in secondary recipients, determined by serial competitive transplantations. Taken together, GADD45G could be identified as molecular link between differentiation-promoting cytokine signaling and rapid differentiation induction in murine LT-HSCs. As presented in this thesis the differentiation induction of GADD45G was mediated by the activation of the cascade of MAP3K4 – MKK6 –p38 MAPK. Small molecule inhibition of p38, but not JNK, blocked the GADD45G-induced differentiation. GADD45G binds to MAP3K4 and releases its auto-inhibitory loop by a change in confirmation, initiating this cascade. Phosphoflow cytometry demonstrated the activation of p38 and a downstream kinase MK2 by GADD45G expression in MPPs. Furthermore, the expression of constitutive active MAP3K4 and MKK6 were able to phenocopy GADD45G-induced differentiation, which could be blocked by p38 inhibition. The other two family members GADD45A and B also induced accelerated differentiation in LT-HSCs. Interestingly, only GADD45G suppressed the differentiation into megakaryocyte and erythrocyte (Mek/E) lineage cells suggesting a role of GADD45G in lineage choice. Long-term time-lapse microscopy-based cell tracking of single LT-HSCs and their progeny revealed that, once GADD45G is expressed, the development of LT-HSCs into granulocyte-macrophage-committed progeny occurred within 36 hours, and uncovered a selective lineage choice with a severe reduction in Mek/E cells. Furthermore, no megakaryocytic-erythroid progenitors (MEPs) could develop from HSPCs in BM 2 weeks after transplantation suggesting a very early selection against Mek/E cell fates. In line with these findings, GADD45G-transduced MEPs could not expand or form colonies in vitro, demonstrating that the differentiation program induced by GADD45G is not compatible with Mek/E lineage fate. Gene expression profiling of HSCs indicated that GADD45G promotes myelomonocytic differentiation programs over programs for self-renewal or megakaryo-/ erythropoiesis. The here identified differentiation induction potential of GADD45G is so strong that the expression of GADD45G in primary acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cells inhibited their expansion accompanied by enhanced differentiation and increased apoptosis. The here presented work shows that IL3 and IL6 induce a differentiation program in HSCs via GADD45G and p38 closing the link of extrinsic cytokine signaling and differentiation induction. Since the loss of Gadd45g increased the self-renewal and slowed HSC differentiation, this may be utilized, i.e. by p38 inhibition, to ex vivo maintain and expand HSCs by preventing cytokine-induced differentiation. Furthermore, Re-expression of GADD45G may overcome the differentiation block in leukemia to eliminate these cells by driving them into terminal differentiation and apoptosis.
- Humanized mice as preclinical model for HIV infections (2014)
- HIV vaccine preclinical testing is difficult because HIV’s only relevant hosts are humans and no correlates of protection are known. To this end, we are working on the humanization of different mouse strains with human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) as well as human hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) to generate a useful small animal model. We generated immune deficient mice (NOD Scid IL2gc -/- /NOD Rag1-/- IL2gc -/-) expressing human MHC class II (HLA-DQ8) on a mouse class II deficient background (Ab-/-). Here, the human HLA-DQ8 should interact with the matching T cell receptors of transferred matching human PBMCs and therefore could support the functionality of the transferred human CD4+ cells in the mice. Mice that were adoptively transferred with human HLA-DQ8 PBMCs only showed engraftment of CD3+ T cells. Surprisingly, the presence of HLA class II did not significantly change the repopulation rates in the mice. Also, the presence of HLA class II did not advance B cell engraftment, such that humoral immune responses were undetectable. However, the overall survival of DQ8-expressing mice was significantly prolonged, compared to mice expressing mouse MHC class II molecules, and correlated with an increased time span until onset of GvHD. To avoid GVHD and to increase and maintain the level of human cell reconstitution over a long period of time, the same mouse strains were reconstituted with human HSC. Compared to PBMC-repopulated mice, HSC-reconstituted mice develop almost all subpopulations of the human immune system detectable at week 12 after HSC transfer. These mice developed adaptive immune responses after Tetanus Toxoide (TT) immunizations. In addition, we are testing the susceptibility of these humanized mice to different HIV strains with a detailed look at immune responses.
- HuR promotes tumorigenic characteristics in hepatocellular carcinoma (2013)
- In the absence of apparent mutations, alteration of gene expression patterns represents the key mechanism by which normal cells evolve to cancer cells. Gene expression is tightly regulated by posttranscriptional processes. Within this context, RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) represent fundamental factors, since they control mechanisms, such as mRNA-stabilization, -translation and -degradation. Human antigen R (HuR) was among the first RBPs that have been directly associated to carcinogenesis. HuR modulates the stability and translation of mRNAs which encode proteins facilitating various ‘hallmarks of cancer’, namely proliferation, evasion of growth suppression, angiogenesis, cell death resistance, invasion and metastasis. Furthermore, it is well established that tumor-promoting inflammation contributes to tumorigenesis. In this process, monocytes are attracted to the site of the tumor and educated towards a tumor-promoting macrophage phenotype. While HuR has been extensively studied in various tumor cell types, little is known about HuR in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Thus, the aim of my work was to characterize the contribution of HuR to the development of cancer characteristics in HCC. I was particularly interested to investigate if HuR facilitates tumor-promoting inflammation, since a role for HuR has not been described in this context. To this end, I depleted HuR in HepG2 cells (HuR k/d) and used a co-culture model of HepG2 tumor spheroids and infiltrating monocytes to study the impact of HuR on the tumor microenvironment. I could show that depletion of HuR resulted in the reduction of cell numbers. Additionally, the expression of proliferation marker KI-67 and proto-oncogene c-Myc was reduced, supporting a proliferative role of HuR. Furthermore, exposure to cytotoxic staurosporine elevated apoptosis in HuR k/d cells compared to control cells. Concomitantly, the expression of the anti-apoptotic mediator B-cell lymphoma protein-2 (Bcl-2) was markedly reduced in the HuR k/d cells, pointing to an involvement of HuR in cell survival processes. Accordingly, a pro-survival function of HuR was also observed in tumor spheroids, since HuR k/d spheroids exhibited a larger necrotic core region at earlier time points and showed elevated numbers of dead cells compared to control (Ctr.) spheroids. Interestingly, HuR k/d spheroids isplayed reduced numbers of infiltrated macrophages, suggesting that HuR contributes to a tumor-promoting, inflammatory microenvironment by recruiting monocytes/macrophages to the tumor site. Aiming at identifying HuR-regulated factors responsible for the recruitment of monocytes, I found reduced levels of the chemokine interleukin 8 (IL-8) in supernatants of HuR k/d spheroids, supporting a critical involvement of HuR in the chemoattraction of monocytes. Analyzing supernatants of co-cultures of macrophages and HuR k/d or Ctr. spheroids revealed additional differences in chemokine secretion patterns. Interestingly, protein levels of many chemokines were elevated in co-cultures of HuR k/d spheroids compared to control co-cultures. Albeit enhanced chemokine secretion was observed, less monocytes are recruited into HuR k/d spheroids, further underlining the necessity of HuR in cancer related monocyte/macrophage attraction and infiltration. Differences between chemokine profiles of mono- and co-cultured spheroids could be attributable to changes in spheroid-derived chemokines as a result of the crosstalk with the immune cells. Provided the chemokines originate from monocytes/macrophages, the different secretion patterns suggest that HuR contributes to the modulation of the functional phenotype of infiltrated macrophages, since the tumorenvironment is critically involved in the shaping of macrophage phenotypes. Regions of low-oxygen (hypoxia) represent another critical feature of tumors. Therefore, I next analyzed the impact of HuR on the hypoxic response. Loss of HuR attenuated hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) 2α expression after exposure to hypoxia, while HIF-1α protein levels remained unaltered. Considering previous results of our group, showing that HIF-2α depletion (HIF-2α k/d) resulted in the enhanced expression of HIF-1α protein, I aimed to determine the involvement of HuR in the compensatory upregulation of HIF-1α protein in HIF-2α k/d cells. I could demonstrate that not only total HuR protein levels, but specifically cytoplasmic HuR was elevated in HIF-2α depleted cells pointing to enhanced HuR activity. Silencing HuR in HIF-2α deficient cells attenuated enhanced HIF-1α protein expression, thus confirming a direct role of HuR in the compensatory upregulation of HIF-1α. This as also reflected on HIF-1α target gene expression. I further investigated the mechanism underlying the compensatory HIF-1α expression in HIF-2α deficient cells. Analyzing HIF-1α mRNA expression, I excluded enhanced HIF1-α transcription and stability to account for elevated HIF-1α expression in HIF-2α k/d cells. HIF-1α promoter activity assays confirmed the mRNA data. Furthermore, HIF-1α protein half-life was not elevated in HIF-2α k/d cells compared to control cells, indicating that HIF-1α protein stability is not altered in HIF-2α k/d cells. Analysis of the association of HIF-1α with the translational machinery using polysomal fractionation finally revealed an increased istribution of HIF-1α mRNA in the heavier polysomal fractions in HIF-2α k/d cells compared to control cells. Since augmented ribosome occupancy is an indicator for more efficient translation, I propose enhanced HIF-1α translation as underlying principle of the compensatory increase in HIF-1α protein levels in HIF-2α k/d cells. In summary, my results demonstrate that HuR is critical for the development of cancer characteristics in HCC. Future work analyzing the impact of HuR on tumor-promoting inflammation, specifically macrophage attraction and activation could provide new trategies to inhibit macrophage-driven tumor progression. Furthermore, I provide evidence that HuR contributes to the hypoxic response by regulating the expression of HIF-1α and HIF-2α. Targeting single HIF-isoforms for tumor therapy should be carefully considered, because of their compensatory regulation when one α-subunit is depleted. Thus, therapeutic strategies targeting factors such as HuR that control both α-subunits and at the same time prevent compensation might be more promising.
- Method developments in coupling gel electrophoresis with mass spectrometry (2011)
- Proteomic analysis is the large-scale identification and characterization of proteins including post translational modifications. Proteomics encompasses a number of approaches including bottom-up and top-down workflows which are widely used independently and complementary as tools for the successful study of protein species. However, up to the present day these techniques have not been able to overcome every analytical limitation. Mass spectrometry has played a vital role alongside proteomics in providing the required analytical means of detecting protein amounts down to the atomole range. Soft ionization methods such as matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) and electrospray ionization (ESI) have permitted the transfer of peptides and intact proteins into the gas phase without extensive degradation. The introduction of recent developments in MALDI technology such as the highly sensitive 4-chloro-alpha-cyanocinnamic acid matrix (Cl-CCA) as well as the commercial availability of a MALDI-LTQ-Orbitrap which boosts peptide mass accuracy below 3 parts per million (ppm), have offered new prospective in protein analysis. The aim of the current study is to incorporate these new aspects and provide further advancements in gel-based as well as gel-free proteomic workflows. Peptides of proteolytically digested proteins are routinely analyzed by means of peptide mass fingerprinting (PMF) often combined with MS/MS analyses to complement and substantiate PMF results by peptide sequence information. The most widely used protease for enzymatic digestion is trypsin, since it exhibits a very specific cleavage behavior limited to C-terminal hydrolyses after basic amino acids. However, less specific enzymes such as chymotrypsin, elastase and pepsin have emerged as useful tools in the analysis of particular protein classes e.g. membrane, cereal, and phosphorylated proteins. In this work a comprehensive bottom-up proteomic investigation including in-solution and in-gel protein digestions of analytes covering small to large, acidic to basic, and hydrophobic to hydrophilic proteins in combination with a series of less specific enzymes are presented in order to show the superiority of the novel MALDI matrix Cl-CCA. The Cl-CCA matrix proved to be highly superior compared to standard α-cyano-4-hydroxycinnamic acid (CHCA) since an average detection of more than 2- to 3-fold peptide amount was possible depending on the used protease and, therefore, resulting in strongly increased sequence coverage. Additionally, protein identification of chymotrypsin and elastase in-gel digested protein standards was evaluated. The MALDI-LTQ-Orbitrap providing peptide mass accuracy below and up to 3 ppm in combination with Cl-CCA as matrix and newly optimized digestion conditions led to unambiguous protein identifications of all chymotryptic digests outperforming its tryptic counterparts in the case of hydrophobic bacteriorhodopsin and α-globin from hemoglobin A (α-HgbA). In addition, significantly higher sequence coverage and increased number of detected peptides was acquired. Moreover, a proposed workaround for elastase digestions was capable of providing a solution for successful identification results. Apart from digestions of singly separated proteins, solution isoelectic focusing (sIEF) was evaluated. OFFGEL fractionation is an efficient means of fractionating peptides and proteins according to their isoelectric point (pI) values through immobilized pH gel (IPG) strips after which samples are recovered in solution. Consequently, an issue of peptide recovery arises as a category of peptides relatively insoluble to the recovery solution should be present. A method was developed including the scraping of gel matrix from the IPG strips and peptide extraction using acetonitrile as organic solvent in combination with analytical techniques such as nLC-MALDI-MS/MS for peptide identification. The nature of the peptide species remaining in-gel was analysed and attributed to peptide solubility. A general trend in which a high percentage of neutral and hydrophobic peptides remaining entrapped in the IPG gel strip was observed. The present work also examines a new top-down proteomic workflow involving protein elution from cleavable gels containing the labile crosslinker ethylene-glycol-diacrylate (EDA). Protein amounts of as low as 100 ng loaded onto EDA gels were detected using MALDI-TOF MS in the linear acquisition mode. Proteins from 8.5 up to 78 kDa were successfully measured including a hydrophobic 15 kDa core protein attaining a GRAVY score of +0.079. Additionally, the method was compatible with one dimensional protein separation as well as for 2-D IEF/SDS-PAGE. Lastly, two methods for protein identification were tested and found to be compatible to the proposed technique.
- Novel approaches of molecular targeting in Philadelphia chromosome positive leukemia (2009)
- In Philadelphia Chromosome (Ph) positive ALL and CML the fusion between BCR and ABL leads to the BCR/ABL fusion proteins, which induces the leukemic phenotype because of the constitutive activation of multiple signaling pathways down-stream to the aberrant BCR/ABL fusion tyrosine kinase. Targeted inhibition of BCR/ABL by ABL-kinase inhibitors induces apoptosis in BCR/ABL transformed cells and leads to complete remission in Ph positive leukemia patients. However, a large portion of patients with advanced Ph+ leukemia relapse and acquire resistance. Kinase domain (KD) mutations interfering with inhibitor binding represent the major mechanism of acquired resistance in patients with Ph+ leukemia. Tetramerization of BCR/ABL through the N-terminal coiled-coil region (CC) of BCR is essential for the ABL-kinase activation. Targeting the CC-domain forces BCR/ABL into a monomeric conformation, reduces its kinase activity and increases the sensitivity for Imatinib. Here we show that i.) targeting the tetramerization by a peptide representing the Helix-2 of the CC efficiently reduced the autophosphorylation of both WT BCR/ABL and its mutants; ii.) Helix-2 inhibited the transformation potential of BCR/ABL independently of the presence of mutations; iii.) Helix-2 efficiently cooperated with Imatinib as revealed by their effects on the transformation potential and the factor-independence related to BCR/ABL with the exception of mutant T315I. These findings suggest that BCR/ABL harboring the T315I mutation have a transformation potential which is at least partially independent from its kinase activity. Targeted inhibition of BCR/ABL by small molecule inhibitors reverses the transformation potential of BCR/ABL. We definitively proved that targeting the tetramerization of BCR/ABL mediated by the N-terminal coiled-coil domain (CC) using competitive peptides, representing the Helix-2 of the CC, represents a valid therapeutic approach for treating Ph+ leukemia. To further develop competitive peptides for targeting BCR/ABL, we created a membrane permeable Helix-2 peptide (MPH-2) by fusing the Helix-2 peptide with a peptide transduction tag. In this study, we report that the MPH-2: (i) interacted with BCR/ABL in vivo; (ii) efficiently inhibited the autophosphorylation of BCR/ABL; (iii) suppressed the growth and viability of Ph+ leukemic cells; and (iv) was efficiently transduced into mononuclear cells (MNC) in an in vivo mouse model. The T315I mutation confers resistance against all actually approved ABL-kinase inhibitors and competitive peptides. It seems not only to decrease affinity for kinase inhibitors but to confer additional features to the leukemogenic potential of BCR/ABL. To determine the role of T315I in resistance to the inhibition of oligomerization and in the leukemogenic potential of BCR/ABL, we investigated its influence on loss-of-function mutants with regard to the capacity to mediate factor-independence. Thus we studied the effects of T315I on BCR/ABL mutants lacking functional domains in the BCR portion indispensable for the oncogenic activity of BCR/ABL such as the N-terminal coiled coil (CC), the tyrosine phosphorylation site Y177 and the serine/threonine kinase domain (ST), as well as on the ABL portion of BCR/ABL (#ABL-T315I) with or without the inhibitory SH3 (delta SH3-ABL) domain. Here we report that i.) T315I restored the capacity to mediate factor independence of oligomerization_deficient p185BCR/ABL; ii.) resistance of p185-T315I against inhibition of the oligomerization depends on the phosphorylation at Y177; iii.) autophosphorylation at Y177 is not affected by the oligomerization inhibition, but phosphorylation at Y177 of endogenous BCR parallels the effects of T315I; iv.) the effects of T315I are associated with an intact ABL_kinase activity; v.) the presence of T315I is associated with an increased ABL_kinase activity also in mutants unable to induce Y177 phosphorylation of endogenous BCR; vi.) there is no direct relationship between the ABL-kinase activity and the capacity to mediate factor_independence induced by T315I as revealed by the #ABL-T315I mutant, which was unable to induce Y177 phosphorylation of BCR only in the presence of the SH3 domain. In contrast to its physiological counterpart c-ABL, the BCR/ABL kinase is constitutively activated, inducing the leukemic phenotype. The N-terminus of c-ABL (Cap region) contributes to the regulation of its kinase function. It is myristoylated, and the myristate residue binds to a hydrophobic pocket in the kinase domain known as the myristoyl binding pocket in a process called “capping”, which results in an auto-inhibited conformation. Because the cap region is replaced by the N-terminus of BCR, BCR/ABL “escapes” this auto-inhibition. Allosteric inhibition by myristate “mimics”, such as GNF-2, is able to inhibit unmutated BCR/ABL, but not the BCR/ABL that harbors the “gatekeeper” mutation T315I. Here we investigated the possibility of increasing the efficacy of allosteric inhibition by blocking BCR/ABL oligomerization. We demonstrate that inhibition of oligomerization was able not only to increase the efficacy of GNF-2 on unmutated BCR/ABL, but also to overcome the resistance of BCR/ABL-T315I to allosteric inhibition. These results strongly suggest that the response to allosteric inhibition by GNF-2 is inversely related to the degree of oligomerization of BCR/ABL. Taken together these data suggest that the inhibition of tetramerization inhibits BCR/ABL-mediated transformation and can contribute to overcome Imatinib-resistance. The study provides the first evidence that an efficient peptide transduction system facilitates the employ-ment of competitive peptides to target the oligomerization interface of BCR/ABL in vivo. Further the data show that T315I confers additional leukemogenic activity to BCR/ABL, which might explain the clinical behavior of patients with BCR/ABL -T315I-positive blasts. In summary, our observations establish a new approach for the molecular targeting of BCR/ABL and its resistant mutants represented by the combination of oligomerization and allosteric inhibitors.