## Universitätspublikationen

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#### Keywords

- Quark-Gluon-Plasma (17) (remove)

#### Institute

- A Stopped delta-matter source in heavy ion collisions at 10-GeV/N? (1994)
- We predict the formation of highly dense baryon-rich resonance matter in Au+Au collisions at AGS energies. The final pion yields show observable signs for resonance matter. The Delta1232 resonance is predicted to be the dominant source for pions of small transverse momenta. Rescattering e ects consecutive excitation and deexcitation of Delta's lead to a long apparent life- time (> 10 fm/c) and rather large volumina (several 100 fm3) of the Delta-matter state. Heavier baryon resonances prove to be crucial for reaction dynamics and particle production at AGS.

- Chemical freezeout in relativistic A+A collisions: is it close to the QGP? (1997)
- Preliminary experimental data for particle number ratios in the collisions of Au+Au at the BNL AGS (11A GeV/c) and Pb+Pb at the CERN SPS (160A GeV/c) are analyzed in a thermodynamically consistent hadron gas model with excluded volume. Large values of temperature, T = 140 185 MeV, and baryonic chemical potential, µb = 590 270 MeV, close to the boundary of the quark-gluon plasma phase are found from fitting the data. This seems to indicate that the energy density at the chemical freezeout is tremendous which would be indeed the case for the point-like hadrons. However, a self-consistent treatment of the van der Waals excluded volume reveals much smaller energy densities which are very far below a lowest limit estimate of the quark-gluon plasma energy density. PACS number(s): 25.75.-q, 24.10.Pa

- Collective phenomena in the non-equilibrium quark-gluon plasma (2008)
- In this work we study the non-equilibrium dynamics of a quark-gluon plasma, as created in heavy-ion collisions. We investigate how big of a role plasma instabilities can play in the isotropization and equilibration of a quark-gluon plasma. In particular, we determine, among other things, how much collisions between the particles can reduce the growth rate of unstable modes. This is done both in a model calculation using the hard-loop approximation, as well as in a real-time lattice simulation combining both classical Yang-Mills-fields as well as inter-particle collisions. The new extended version of the simulation is also used to investigate jet transport in isotropic media, leading to a cutoff-independent result for the transport coefficient $hat{q}$. The precise determination of such transport coefficients is essential, since they can provide important information about the medium created in heavy-ion collisions. In anisotropic media, the effect of instabilities on jet transport is studied, leading to a possible explanation for the experimental observation that high-energy jets traversing the plasma perpendicular to the beam axis experience much stronger broadening in rapidity than in azimuth. The investigation of collective modes in the hard-loop limit is extended to fermionic modes, which are shown to be all stable. Finally, we study the possibility of using high energy photon production as a tool to experimentally determine the anisotropy of the created system. Knowledge of the degree of local momentum-space anisotropy reached in a heavy-ion collision is essential for the study of instabilities and their role for isotropization and thermalization, because their growth rate depends strongly on the anisotropy.

- Energy dependence of multiplicity fluctuations in heavy ion collisions at the CERN SPS (2008)
- In this work data of the NA49 experiment at CERN SPS on the energy dependence of multiplicity fluctuations in central Pb+Pb collisions at 20A, 30A, 40A, 80A and 158A GeV, as well as the system size dependence at 158A GeV, is analysed for positively, negatively and all charged hadrons. Furthermore the rapidity and transverse momentum dependence of multiplicity fluctuations are studied. The experimental results are compared to predictions of statistical hadron-gas and string-hadronic models. It is expected that multiplicity fluctuations are sensitive to the phase transition to quark-gluon-plasma (QGP) and to the critical point of strongly interacting matter. It is predicted that both the onset of deconfinement, the lowest energy where QGP is created, and the critical point are located in the SPS energy range. Furthermore, the predictions for the multiplicity fluctuations of statistical and string-hadronic models are different, the experimental data might allow to distinguish between them. The used measure of multiplicity fluctuations is the scaled variance omega, defined as the ratio of the variance and the mean of the multiplicity distribution. In the NA49 experiment the tracks of charged particles are detected in four large volume time projection chambers (TPCs). In order to remove possible detector effects a detailed study of event and track selection criteria is performed. Naively one would expect Poisson fluctuations in central heavy ion collisions. A suppression of fluctuations compared to a Poisson distribution is observed for positively and negatively charged hadrons at forward rapidity in Pb+Pb collisions. At midrapidity and for all charged hadrons the fluctuations are larger than the Poisson ones. The fluctuations seem to increase with decreasing system size. It is suggested that this is due to increased relative fluctuations in the number of participants. Furthermore, it was discovered that omega increases for decreasing rapidity and transverse momentum. A hadron-gas model predicts different values of omega for different statistical ensembles. In the grand-canonical ensemble, where all conservation laws are fulfilled only on the average, not on an event-by-event basis, the predicted fluctuations are the largest ones. In the canonical ensemble the charges, namely the electrical charge, the baryon number and the strangeness, are conserved for each event. The scaled variance in this ensemble is smaller than for the grand-canonical ensemble. In the micro-canonical ensemble not only the charges, but also the energy and the momentum are conserved in each event, the predicted $omega$ is the smallest one. The grand-canonical and canonical formulations of the hadron-gas model over-predict fluctuations in the forward acceptance. In contrast to the experimental data no dependence of omega on rapidity and transverse momentum is expected. For the micro-canonical formulation, which predicts small fluctuations in the total phase space, no quantitative calculation is available yet for the limited experimental acceptance. The increase of fluctuations for low rapidities and transverse momenta can be qualitatively understood in a micro-canonical ensemble as an effect of energy and momentum conservation. The string-hadronic model UrQMD significantly over-predicts the mean multiplicities but approximately reproduces the scaled variance of the multiplicity distributions at all measured collision energies, systems and phase-space intervals. String-hadronic models predict for Pb+Pb collisions a monotonous increase of omega with collision energy, similar to the observations for p+p interactions. This is in contrast to the predictions of the hadron-gas model, where omega shows no energy dependence at higher energies. At SPS energies the predictions of the string-hadronic and hadron-gas models are in the same order of magnitude, but at RHIC and LHC energies the difference in omega in the full phase space is much larger. Experimental data should be able to distinguish between them rather easily. Narrower than Poissonian (omega < 1) multiplicity fluctuations measured in the forward kinematic region (1<y(pi)<y_{beam}) can be related to the reduced fluctuations predicted for relativistic gases with imposed conservation laws. This general feature of relativistic gases may be preserved also for some non-equilibrium systems as modeled by the string-hadronic approaches. A quantitative estimate shows that the predicted maximum in fluctuations due to a first order phase transition from hadron-gas to QGP is smaller than the experimental errors of the present experiment and can therefore neither be confirmed nor disproved. No sign of increased fluctuations as expected for a freeze-out near the critical point of strongly interacting matter is observed.

- Fluctuations and inhomogenities of energy density and isospin in Pb + Pb at the SPS (1998)
- The main goal of heavy ion physics in the last fifteen years has been the search for the quark-gluon-plasma(QGP). Until now, unambigous experimental evidence for the QGP is missing.

- Hadron production from a hadronizing quark-gluon plasma (1997)
- Measured hadron yields from relativistic nuclear collisions can be equally well understood in two physically distinct models, namely a static thermal hadronic source versus a time-dependent, non-equilibrium hadronization off a quark gluon plasma droplet. Due to the time-dependent particle evaporation off the hadronic surface in the latter approach the hadron ratios change (by factors of / 5) in time. The overall particle yields then reflect time averages over the actual thermodynamic properties of the system at a certain stage of evolution.

- J/psi suppression in heavy ion collisions - interplay of hard and soft QCD processes (1998)
- We study J/psi suppression in AB collisions assuming that the charmonium states evolve from small, color transparent configurations. Their interaction with nucleons and nonequilibrated, secondary hadrons is simulated us- ing the microscopic model UrQMD. The Drell-Yan lepton pair yield and the J/psi /Drell-Yan ratio are calculated as a function of the neutral transverse en- ergy in Pb+Pb collisions at 160 GeV and found to be in reasonable agreement with existing data.

- Kaon and pion production in centrality selected minimum bias Pb+Pb collisions at 40 and 158A GeV (2009)
- Results on charged kaon and negatively charged pion production and spectra for centrality selected Pb+Pb mininimum bias events at 40 and 158A GeV have been presented in this thesis. All analysis are based on data taken by the NA49 experiment at the accelerator Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS) at the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) in Geneva, Switzerland. The kaon results are based on an analysis of the mean energy loss <dE/dx> of the charged particles traversing the detector gas of the time projection chambers (TPCs). The pion results are from an analysis of all negatively charged particles h- corrected for contributions from particle decays and secondary interactions. For the dE/dx analysis of charged kaons, main TPC tracks with a total momentum between 4 and 50 GeV have been analyzed in logarithmic momentum log(p) and transverse momentum pt bins. The resulting dE/dx spectra have been fitted by the sum of 5 Gaussians, one for each main particle type (electrons, pions, kaons, protons, deuterons). The amplitude of the Gaussian used for the kaon part of the spectra has been corrected for efficiency and acceptance and the binning has been transformed to rapidity y and transverse momentum pt bins. The multiplicity dN/dy of the single rapidity bins has been derived by summing the measured range of the transverse momentum spectra and an extrapolation to full coverage with a single exponential function fitted to the measured range. The results have been combined with the mid-rapidity measurements from the time-of-flight detectors and a double Gaussian fit to the dN/dy spectra has been used for extrapolation to rapidity outside of the acceptance of the dE/dx analysis. For the h- analysis of negatively charged pions, all negatively charged tracks have been analyzed. The background from secondary reactions, particle decays, and gamma-conversions has been corrected with the VENUS event generator. The results were also corrected for efficiency and acceptance and the pt spectra were analyzed and extrapolated where necessary to derive the mean yield per rapidity bin dN/dy. The mean multiplicity <pi-> has been derived by summing up the measured dN/dy and extrapolating the rapidity spectrum with a double Gaussian fit to 4pi coverage. The results have been discussed in detail and compared to various model calculations. Microscopical models like URQMD and HSD do not describe the full complexity of Pb+Pb collisions. Especially the production of the positively charged kaons, which carry the major part of strange quarks, cannot be consistently reproduced by the model calculations. Centrality selected minimum bias Pb+Pb collisions can be described as a mixture of a high-density region of multiply colliding nucleons (core) and practically independent nucleon-nucleon collisions (corona). This leads to a smooth evolution from peripheral to central collisions. A more detailed approach derives the ensemble volume from a percolation of elementary clusters. In the percolation model all clusters are formed from coalescing strings that are assumed to decay statistically with the volume dependence of canonical strangeness suppression. The percolation model describes the measured data for top SPS and RHIC energies. At 40A GeV, the system size dependence of the relative strangeness production starts to evolve from the saturation seen at higher energies from peripheral events onwards towards a linear dependence at SIS and AGS. This change of the dependence on system size occurs in the energy region of the observed maximum of the K+ to pi ratio for central Pb+Pb collisions. Future measurements with heavy ion beam energies around this maximum at RHIC and FAIR as well as the upgraded NA49 successor experiment NA61 will further improve our understanding of quark matter and its reflection in modern heavy ion physics and theories.

- Modelling ultra-relativistic heavy ion collisions with the quark Molecular Dynamics qMD (2005)
- This thesis presents a model for the dynamical description of deconfined quark matter created in ultra-relativistic heavy ion collisions, treating quarks and antiquarks as classical point particles subject to a colour-dependent, Cornell-type potential interaction. The model provides a dynamical handle for hadronization via the recombination of quarks and antiquarks in colour neutral clusters. Gluons are not included explicitly in the model,but are described in an effective manner by the means of the potential interaction. The model includes four different quark flavours (up, down, strange and charm) and uses current masses for the quarks. The dynamical evolution of a system of colour charges subject to the Hamiltonian equations of motion of the model yields the formation of colour neutral clusters of quarks and antiquarks, which are subject only to a small remaining interaction, the strong interquark potential notwithstanding. These clusters can be mapped onto hadrons and hadronic resonances. Thus, the model allows a dynamical description of quarks degrees of freedom in heavy ion collisions, including a recombination scheme for hadronization. The thermal properties of the model turn pout to be very satisfying. The model shows a transition from a confining phase to a deconfined phase with rising temperature, going hand in hand with a softest point in the equation of state and a rise of energy density and pressure to the Stefan-Boltzmann limit of a gas of quarks and antiquarks. Moreover, the potential interaction is screened in the deconfined phase. For the dynamical description of ultra-relativistic heavy ion collision, the qMD model is coupled to UrQMD as a generator for its initial conditions. In this way, a fully dynamical description of the expansion and hadronization of the fireball created in such collisions can be achieved. Non-equilibrium aspects of the expansion dynamics and hadronization by recombination of quarks and antiquarks are discussed in detail, and a comparison with experimental data of collisions at the CERN-SPS is presented. The big advantage of the qMD model is the possibility to study cluster formation, including exotic clusters, and fluctuations in a dynamical manner. As an example, event-by-event fluctuations in electric charge are studied. Such fluctuations have been proposed as a clear criterion to distinguish a deconfined system from a hadrons gas. However, experimental data show hadron gas fluctuation measures even at RHIC, where deconfinement is taken for granted. We will see how the dynamics of quark recombination washes out the quark-gluon plasma signal in the fluctuation criterion. Moreover, we will discuss briefly the problem of entropy at recombination. In a second application, the formation of exotic hadronic clusters, larger than usual mesons and baryons, is studied. Such clusters could provide new measures for the thermalization and homogenization of a deconfined gas of colour charges. Moreover, number estimates for exotic clusters from recombination are considerably lower than corresponding predictions from thermal models, providing a clear difference between statistical hadronization and hadronization via quark recombination. A detailed analysis is provided for pentaquark candidates such as the Theta-Plus. It turns out that the distribution of exotic states over strangeness, isospin, and spin could provide a sensitive measure for thermalization and decorrelation in the deconfined quark phase, if it could be measured.

- Monte Carlo model for multiparticle production at ultrarelativistic energies (1994)
- The Monte Carlo parton string model for multiparticle production in hadron-hadron, hadron-nucleus, and nucleus-nucleus collisions at high energies is described. An adequate choice of the parameters in the model gives the possibility of recovering the main results of the dual parton model, with the advantage of treating both hadron and nuclear interactions on the same footing, reducing them to interactions between partons. Also the possibility of considering both soft and hard parton interactions is introduced.