Is part of the Bibliography
Similarity hypotheses for the atmospheric surface layer expressed by non-dimensional characteristic invariants - a review
- In this paper, similarity hypotheses for the atmospheric surface layer (ASL) are reviewed using nondimensional characteristic invariants, referred to as π -numbers. The basic idea of this dimensional π-invariants analysis (sometimes also called Buckingham’s π-theorem) is described in a mathematically generalized formalism. To illustrate the task of this powerful method and how it can be applied to deduce a variety of reasonable solutions by the formalized procedure of non-dimensionalization, various instances are represented that are relevant to the turbulence transfer across the ASL and prevailing structure of ASL turbulence. Within the framework of our review we consider both (a) Monin-Obukhov scaling for forced-convective conditions, and (b) Prandtl-Obukhov-Priestley scaling for free-convective conditions.It is shown that in the various instances of Monin-Obukhov scaling generally two π-numbers occur that result in corresponding similarity functions. In contrast to that, Prandtl-Obukhov-Priestley scaling will lead to only one π number in each case usually considered as a non-dimensional universal constant. Since an explicit mathematical relationship for the similarity functions cannot be obtained from a dimensional π-invariants analysis, elementary laws of π-invariants have to be pointed out using empirical or/and theoretical findings. To evaluate empirical similarity functions usually considered within the framework flux-profile relationships, so-called integral similarity functions for momentum and sensible heat are presented and assessed on the basis of the friction velocity and the vertical component of the eddy flux densities of sensible and latent heat directly measured during the GREIV I 1974 field campaign.
EFP1 is an ER stress-induced glycoprotein which interacts with the pro-apoptotic protein Par-4
- We have isolated the rat ortholog of EFP1 (EF-hand binding protein 1) as a novel interaction partner of the pro-apoptotic protein Par-4 (prostate apoptosis response-4). Rat EFP1 contains two thioredoxin domains, the COOH-terminal one harboring a CGFC motif, and has a similar protein domain structure as members of the protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) family. In REF52.2 and CHO cells, EFP1 colocalized with the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) marker PDI. Furthermore, EFP1 possesses catalytic activity as demonstrated by an insulin disulfide reduction assay. Western blot analysis revealed two EFP1 protein bands of approximately 136 and 155 kDa, representing different glycosylation states of the protein. Complex formation between EFP1 and Par-4 was confirmed in vitro and in vivo by co-immunoprecipitation, dot blot overlay and pull-down experiments. In CHO cells, coexpression of EFP1 and Par-4 resulted in enhanced Par-4-mediated apoptosis, which required the catalytic activity of EFP1. Interestingly, EFP1 was specifically upregulated in NIH3T3 cells after induction of ER stress by thapsigargin, tunicamycin, and brefeldin A, but not by agents that induce oxidative stress or ER-independent apoptosis. Furthermore, we could show that the induction of apoptosis by Ca2+ stress-inducing agents was significantly decreased after siRNA oligonucleotide-mediated knockdown of Par-4. Our data suggest that EFP1 might represent a cell-protective enzyme that could play an important role in the decision between survival and initiation of Par-4-mediated apoptosis.
The role of endocarditis, myocarditis and pericarditis in qualitative and quantitative data analysis
Jan David Alexander Groneberg
- The current study is the first scientometric analysis of research activity and output in the field of inflammatory disorders of the heart (endo-, myo- and pericarditis). Scientometric methods are used to compare scientific performance on national and on international scale to identify single areas of research interest. Interest and research productivity in inflammatory diseases of the heart have increased since 1990. The majority of publications about inflammatory heart disorders were published in Western Europe and North America. The United States of America had a leading position in terms of research productivity and quality; half of the most productive authors in this study came from American institutions. The analysis of international cooperation revealed research activity in countries that are less established in the field of inflammatory heart disorder research, such as Brazil, Saudi Arabia and Tunisia. These results indicate that future research of heart inflammation may no longer be influenced predominantly by a small number of countries. Furthermore, this study revealed weaknesses in currently established scientometric parameters (i.e., h-index, impact factor) that limit their suitability as measures of research quality. In this respect, self-citations should be generally excluded from calculations of h-index and impact factor.
Does type of hospital ownership influence physicians' daily work schedules? : An observational real-time study in German hospital departments
Burghard F. Klapp
Jan David Alexander Groneberg
- BACKGROUND: During the last two decades the German hospital sector has been engaged in a constant process of transformation. One obvious sign of this is the growing amount of hospital privatization. To date, most research studies have focused on the effects of privatization regarding financial outcomes and quality of care, leaving important organizational issues unexplored. Yet little attention has been devoted to the effects of privatization on physicians' working routines. The aim of this observational real-time study is to deliver exact data about physicians' work at hospitals of different ownership. By analysing working hours, further impacts of hospital privatization can be assessed and areas of improvement identified.
METHODS: Observations were made by shadowing 100 physicians working in private, for-profit or non-profit as well as public hospital departments individually during whole weekday shifts in urban German settings. A total of 300 days of observations were conducted. All working activities were recorded, accurate to the second, by using a mobile personal computer.
RESULTS: Results have shown significant differences in physicians' working activities, depending on hospital ownership, concerning working hours and time spent on direct and indirect patient care.
CONCLUSION: This is the first real-time analysis on differences in work activities depending on hospital ownership. The study provides an objective insight into physicians' daily work routines at hospitals of different ownership, with additional information on effects of hospital privatization.
Scoliosis: density-equalizing mapping and scientometric analysis
Jan David Alexander Groneberg
- BACKGROUND: Publications related to scoliosis have increased enormously. A differentiation between publications of major and minor importance has become difficult even for experts. Scientometric data on developments and tendencies in scoliosis research has not been available to date. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the scientific efforts of scoliosis research both quantitatively and qualitatively.
METHODS: Large-scale data analysis, density-equalizing algorithms and scientometric methods were used to evaluate both the quantity and quality of research achievements of scientists studying scoliosis. Density-equalizing algorithms were applied to data retrieved from ISI-Web.
RESULTS: From 1904 to 2007, 8,186 items pertaining to scoliosis were published and included in the database. The studies were published in 76 countries: the USA, the U.K. and Canada being the most productive centers. The Washington University (St. Louis, Missouri) was identified as the most prolific institution during that period, and orthopedics represented by far the most productive medical discipline. "BRADFORD, DS" is the most productive author (146 items), and "DANSEREAU, J" is the author with the highest scientific impact (h-index of 27).
CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that currently established measures of research output (i.e. impact factor, h-index) should be evaluated critically because phenomena, such as self-citation and co-authorship, distort the results and limit the value of the conclusions that may be drawn from these measures. Qualitative statements are just tractable by the comparison of the parameters with respect to multiple linkages. In order to obtain more objective evaluation tools, new measurements need to be developed.
Medical work assessment in german hospitals: a real-time observation study (MAGRO) – the study protocol
Jan David Alexander Groneberg
- Background: The increasing economic pressure characterizes the current situation in health care and the need to justify medical decisions and organizational processes due to limited financial resources is omnipresent. Physicians tend to interpret this development as a decimation of their own medical influence. This becomes even more obvious after a change in hospital ownership i.e. from a public to a private profit oriented organization. In this case each work procedure is revised.
To date, most research studies have focused mainly on differences between hospitals of different ownership regarding financial outcomes and quality of care, leaving important organizational issues unexplored. Little attention has been devoted to the effects of hospital ownership on physicians' working routines.
The aim of this observational real time study is to deliver exact data about physicians' work at hospitals of different ownership.
Methods: The consequences of different management types on the organizational structures of the physicians' work situation and on job satisfaction in the ward situation are monitored by objective real time studies and multi-level psycho diagnostic measurements.
Discussion: This study is unique in its focus. To date no results have been found for computer-based real time studies on work activity in the clinical field in order to objectively evaluate a physician's work-related stress. After a complete documentation of the physicians' work processes the daily work flow can be estimated and systematically optimized. This can stimulate an overall improvement of health care services in Germany.
Reform des familiengerichtlichen Verfahrens / 1. Familienrechtliches Forum Göttingen
- Dieser Band dokumentiert die Vorträge des ersten „Familienrechtlichen Forums
Göttingen“, das am 28. Juni 2008 stattgefunden hat. Unmittelbar vor dem Abschluss
des Gesetzgebungsverfahrens erörterten Experten aus Wissenschaft,
Politik und Praxis das im September 2009 in Kraft tretende „Gesetz über das
Verfahren in Familiensachen und in den Angelegenheiten der freiwilligen Gerichtsbarkeit“
(FamFG). Der Band enthält einen Überblick über die Grundzüge
des neuen Familienverfahrensrechts sowie Analysen und Stellungnahmen zu
einzelnen Bereichen. Dabei werden schwerpunktmäßig das neue Rechtsmittelund
Vollstreckungssystem, das Hinwirken auf Einvernehmen, das Vermittlungsverfahren,
der Verfahrensbeistand, der Umgangspfleger und das Verfahren bei
Kindeswohlgefährdung behandelt. Darüber hinaus wird eine interdisziplinäre
Perspektive durch die soziologische Einordnung der derzeitigen Reformen in
den Kontext der allgemeinen Familien- und Sozialpolitik eröffnet.
"Ein Schritt nach vorn, zwei Schritte zurück"?! – Kritische Anmerkungen zur Installierung des Umgangspflegers und zur Revision der Verfahrenspflegschaft im FGG-RG
Mit der neuen Umgangspflegschaft verabschiedet sich der Gesetzgeber vom
Grundsatz, dass Eingriffe in das elterliche Sorgerecht erst bei (nicht anders
abwendbaren) erheblichen Kindeswohlgefährdungen zulässig sind. Bleibt zu
hoffen, dass die Praxis mit größter Behutsamkeit von der Bestellung von Umgangspflegschaften
Gebrauch macht, insbesondere dann, wenn Umgang gegen
den Kindeswillen durchgesetzt werden soll, was sich aus rechtlichen, fachlichen
und ethischen Gründen verbietet.
Die massive Bedrohung der eigenständigen Interessenvertretung Minderjähriger
– die bislang eine Erfolgsgeschichte zu werden schien – tritt am 01.09.2009
in Kraft. Verfahrenspfleger/-beistände werden sich auf die neue vergütungsrechtliche
Situation einzustellen haben, mit welchen persönlichen Konsequenzen,
das kann nur von ihnen beantwortet werden. Es wäre schade, insbesondere
für die auf qualifizierte und einfühlsame Verfahrenspfleger/-beistände angewiesenen
Minderjährigen, wenn allzu viele dieser erfahrenen und bewährten Interessenvertreter Minderjähriger sich von diesem bedeutsamen, aber auch
herausfordernden Arbeitsfeld abwenden müssten, geht es doch bei der Gruppe
von Minderjährigen, die auf einen Verfahrenspfleger bzw. -beistand zur
eigenständigen Wahrnehmung ihrer Interessen angewiesen sind, um Minderjährige,
die bereits erheblich gefährdet sind oder waren bzw. denen eine solch
massive Beeinträchtigung ihres Wohls droht.
Sicherlich: Auf die Situation vor 1998 sind wir noch nicht zurückgeworfen,
aber es gilt in mühsamer Arbeit die Rechtspolitik davon zu überzeugen, dass
diese Fehlentscheidung alsbald korrigiert werden muss.
The matricellular functions of small leucine-rich proteoglycans (SLRPs)
Roland M. Schäfer
- The small leucine-rich proteoglycans (SLRPs) are biologically active components of the extracellular matrix (ECM), consisting of a protein core with leucine rich-repeat (LRR) motifs covalently linked to glycosaminoglycan (GAG) side chains. The diversity in composition resulting from the various combinations of protein cores substituted with one or more GAG chains along with their pericellular localization enables SLRPs to interact with a host of different cell surface receptors, cytokines, growth factors, and other ECM components, leading to modulation of cellular functions. SLRPs are capable of binding to: (i) different types of collagens, thereby regulating fibril assembly, organization, and degradation; (ii) Toll-like receptors (TLRs), complement C1q, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFα), regulating innate immunity and inflammation; (iii) epidermal growth factor receptor (EGF-R), insulin-like growth factor receptor (IGF-IR), and c-Met, influencing cellular proliferation, survival, adhesion, migration, tumor growth and metastasis as well as synthesis of other ECM components; (iv) low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein (LRP-1) and TGF-β, modulating cytokine activity and fibrogenesis; and (v) growth factors such as bone morphogenic protein (BMP-4) and Wnt-I-induced secreted protein-1 (WISP-1), controlling cell proliferation and differentiation. Thus, the ability of SLRPs, as ECM components, to directly or indirectly regulate cell-matrix crosstalk, resulting in the modulation of various biological processes, aptly qualifies these compounds as matricellular proteins.
Diagnostics of the tropical tropopause layer from in-situ observations and CCM data
Guido Di Donfrancesco
- A suite of diagnostics is applied to in-situ aircraft measurements and one Chemistry-Climate Model (CCM) data to characterize the vertical structure of the Tropical Tropopause Layer (TTL). The diagnostics are based on vertical tracer profiles and relative vertical tracer gradients, using tropopause-referenced coordinates, and tracer-tracer relationships in the tropical Upper Troposphere/Lower Stratosphere (UT/LS).
Observations were obtained during four tropical campaigns performed from 1999 to 2006 with the research aircraft Geophysica and have been compared to the output of the ECHAM5/MESSy CCM. The model vertical resolution in the TTL (~500 m) allows for appropriate comparison with high-resolution aircraft observations and the diagnostics used highlight common TTL features between the model and the observational data.
The analysis of the vertical profiles of water vapour, ozone, and nitrous oxide, in both the observations and the model, shows that concentration mixing ratios exhibit a strong gradient change across the tropical tropopause, due to the role of this latter as a transport barrier and that transition between the tropospheric and stratospheric regimes occurs within a finite layer. The use of relative vertical ozone and carbon monoxide gradients, in addition to the vertical profiles, helps to highlight the region where this transition occurs and allows to give an estimate of its thickness. The analysis of the CO-O3 and H2O-O3 scatter plots and of the Probability Distribution Function (PDF) of the H2O-O3 pair completes this picture as it allows to better distinguish tropospheric and stratospheric regimes that can be identified by their different chemical composition.
The joint analysis and comparison of observed and modelled data allows to state that the model can represent the background TTL structure and its seasonal variability rather accurately. The model estimate of the thickness of the interface region between tropospheric and stratospheric regimes agrees well with average values inferred from observations. On the other hand, the measurements can be influenced by regional scale variability, local transport processes as well as deep convection, that can not be captured by the model.