Biglycan: a multivalent proteoglycan providing structure and signals
Madalina V. Nastase
Marian F. Young
- Research over the past few years has provided fascinating results indicating that biglycan, besides being a ubiquitous structural component of the extracellular matrix (ECM), may act as a signaling molecule. Proteolytically released from the ECM, biglycan acts as a danger signal signifying tissue stress or injury. As a ligand of innate immunity receptors and activator of the inflammasome, biglycan stimulates multifunctional proinflammatory signaling linking the innate to the adaptive immune response. By clustering several types of receptors on the cell surface and orchestrating their downstream signaling events, biglycan is capable to autonomously trigger sterile inflammation and to potentiate the inflammatory response to microbial invasion. Besides operating in a broad biological context, biglycan also displays tissue-specific affinities to certain receptors and structural components, thereby playing a crucial role in bone formation, muscle integrity, and synapse stability at the neuromuscular junction. This review attempts to provide a concise summary of recent data regarding the involvement of biglycan in the regulation of inflammation and the musculoskeletal system, pointing out both a signaling and a structural role for this proteoglycan. The potential of biglycan as a novel therapeutic target or agent for the treatment of inflammatory diseases and skeletal muscular dystrophies is also addressed.
Synergistic effects of IL-18 and double stranded RNA poly(I:C) in leukemic KG-1 cells
- IL-18, a recently identified member of IL-1 family, is now recognized as an important regulator of innate and acquired immune responses. Therefore, the antitumor activities of IL-18 have been investigated. IL-18 has been shown to induce IFN-γ production by T, B, and NK cells, enhances NK cell activity, activates Fas ligandmediated apoptosis of the tumor cells, and improves the overall antitumor immunity. KG-1 cells were derived from a patient with acute myeloid leukemia (AML). IL-18 has been shown to induce IFN-γ production in those leukemic cells. TLR-3, in addition to its ability to recognize viral double stranded RNA, also can recognize the synthetic analogue poly(I:C) and induces type I IFN, inflammatory cytokine production, e.g TNF-α, and maturation of denderitic cells. In the present work the potential modulatory effect of PIC on IFN-γ and TNF-α production by KG-1 cells treated with IL-18 was investigated. Indeed, PIC strongly amplified the production of IFN-γ induced by IL-18 on mRNA and protein levels via NF-κB as well as p38 and JNK MAPK activation. Compared to IFN-γ, TNF-α showed different behaviour in KG-1 cells. On mRNA level I found only weak induction of TNF-α by IL-18 which was potentiated in the presence of PIC. Similarly, the release of TNF-α by IL-18 plus PIC required NF-κB as well as p38 and JNK MAPK activation. Furthermore, in the present work I found that TLR-3 is required for IFN-γ and TNF-α production. In addition, it is demonstrated by immunofluoresence that TLR-3 is localized in cytoplasm but not on the cell surface in KG-1 cells. Recently, it has been demonstrated that IFN-γ shows therapeutic potential as detected in AML blasts, specifically via inhibition of proliferation and induction of apoptosis. Thus our data could serve as a rationale for the clinical use of PIC and IL-18 in combination therapy. In search for new cytokines potentially modulated by the combination IL-18 plus PIC in KG-1 cells, cytokine antibody array analysis was performed. I found an upregulation of expected genes like IP-10 but most interestingly unexpected upregulation of PDGF-AA. Searching for detailed mechanisms of PDGF-AA induction, I found that neither p38 nor JNK is involved in PDGF-AA production but NF-κB is essential for the expression of PDGF-AA. Furthermore, I found that PDGF-AA is not able to increase the proliferation of KG-1 cells. PDGF and TGF-β are examples of signaling molecules which control the growth, survival, motility, and differentiation of cells. Therefore, the release of TGF-β by IL-18 plus PIC was monitored by ELISA. The level of TGF-β in cellular supernatants revealed that neither PIC nor IL-18 was able to significantly mediate release of TGF-β indicating that only PDGF-AA but not TGF-β is induced by PIC and IL-18 in KG-1 cells. To the best of our knowledge this is the first time that IL-18 or PIC is shown to induce the expression of PDGF-AA in KG-1 cells.
Regulation of neutral ceramidase in glomerular messangial cells
- During the past several years, ceramide has emerged as an important second messenger triggering cell responses including proliferation, differentiation, growth arrest and apoptosis. This thesis has focused on the regulation of neutral ceramidase which critically determines, in concert with ceramide generating sphingomyelinases, the intracellular ceramide levels. In the first part it is reported that besides a rapid and transient increase in neutral sphingomyelinase activity a second delayed peak of activation occurs after hours of IL-1beta treatment. This second phase of activation is first detectable after 2 h of treatment, and steadily increases over the next two hours reaching maximal values after 4 h. In parallel, a pronounced increase in neutral ceramidase activity is observed, which accounts for a constant or even decreased level of ceramide after long-term IL-1beta treatment, despite continuous sphingomyelinase activation. The increase in neutral ceramidase activity is due to expressional up-regulation, as detected by an increase in mRNA level and enhanced de novo protein synthesis. The increase of neutral ceramidase protein levels and activity can be blocked dosedependently by the p38- mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38-MAPK) inhibitor, SB 202190, whereas the classical MAPK pathway inhibitor U0126, and the PKC inhibitor Ro 31-8220 were ineffective. Moreover, co-treatment of cells for 24 h with IL-1~ and SB 202190 leads to an increase in ceramide formation. Interestingly, IL-1beta-stimulated neutral ceramidase activation is not reduced in mesangial cells isolated from mice deficient in MAPK-activated protein kinase 2 (MAPKAPK-2), which is one possible downstream substrate of the p38-MAPK, thus suggesting that the p38-MAPK-mediated induction of neutral ceramidase occurs independently of MAPKAPK-2. The results suggest a biphasic regulation of sphingomyelin hydrolysis in cytokine-treated mesangial cells with a delayed de novo synthesis of neutral ceramidase counteracting sphingomyelinase activity and apoptosis. Neutral ceramidase may thus represent a novel cytoprotective enzyme for mesangial cells exposed to inflammatory stress conditions. In a second part, the effect of NO on neutral ceramidase was studied. Ceramide levels are strongly increased in a delayed fashion by stimulation of renal mesangial cells with NO. This effect is due to a dual action of NO, comprising an activation of sphingomyelinases and an inhibition of ceramidase activity. The inhibition of neutral ceramidase activity correlates with the decrease of neutral ceramidase protein. A complete loss of neutral ceramidase protein is obtained after 24h of NO stimUlation. Moreover, the NO-induced degradation is reversed by the protein kinase C (PKC) activator, 12-0-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) , but also by the physiological PKC activators platelet-derived growth factor-BB (PDGF-BB), angiotensin II and ATP, resulting in a normalisation of neutral ceramidase protein as well as activity. In vivo phosphorylation studies using 32Pj-labelled mesangial cells, reveal that TPA, PDGF-BB, angiotensin II and ATP trigger an increased phosphorylation of the neutral ceramidase, which is blocked by the broad-spectrum PKC inhibitor Ro-31 8220, but not by CGP 41251, which has a preferential action on Ca2+-dependent PKC isoforms, thus suggesting the involvement of a Ca2+-independent PKC isoenzyme. In vitro phosphorylation assays using recombinant PKC isoenzymes and neutral ceramidase immunoprecipitated from unstimulated mesangial cells, show that particularly the PKC-alpha isoform, and to a lesser extent the PKC-a isoform, are efficient in directly phosphorylating neutral ceramidase. The data show that NO is able to induce degradation of neutral ceramidase thereby promoting accumulation of ceramide in the cell. This effect is reversed by PKC activation, most probably by the PKC-delta isoenzyme, which may directly phosphorylate and thereby, prevent neutral ceramidase degradation. In the third chapter it is demonstrated that the NO-triggered degradation of neutral ceramidase involves activation of the ubiquitin/proteasome complex. The specific proteasome inhibitor, lactacystin, completely reverses the NO-induced degradation of ceramidase protein and neutral ceramidase activity. As a consequence, the cellular amount of ceramide, which drastically increases by NO stimulation, is reduced in the presence of lactacystin. Furthermore, ubiquitinated neutral ceramidase accumulates after NO stimulation. The data clearly show that the ubiquitin/proteasome complex is an important determinant of neutral ceramidase activity and thereby regulates the availability of ceramide. In a last part, the cellular localisation of neutral ceramidase was investigated using green fluorescent protein (GFP) as fusion protein to examine cellular distribution and translocation of neutral ceramidase. Unstimulated HEK 293 cells reveal after transient transfection experiments that neutral ceramidase is preferentially localized in the cytoplasm. PKC activation led to an accumulation of neutral ceramidase at the nuclear membrane. In summary, this work demonstrates that the neutral ceramidase is a fine regulated protein that plays a critical role in regulating intracellular ceramide levels and thereby the cell's fate to undergo apoptosis or survive. Regulation of neutral ceramidase can be achieved on all levels, i.e. on the mRNA level, the protein level or posttranslationally by phosphorylation and subcellular translocation. Future work will reveal whether neutral ceramidase can serve as a therapeutic target in the development of novel antiinflammatory and anti-tumour drugs.
Study of proteins as drug targets by NMR spectroscopy
Molecular and cellular mechanisms of Ginkgo biloba extract [EGb 761®] in improving age-related and ß-amyloid induced neuronal dysfunctions
Reham Mahmoud Abdel-Kader
- The utilization of Ginkgo biloba in medicinal practice dates back to 1505 A.D. Ironically, the mechanisms of action of Ginkgo are not fully clarified till now. Nowadays, Ginkgo biloba leaf extracts are mainly indicated for mild to moderate cerebrovascular insufficiency and different forms of dementia. The fact that it is an herbal extract composed of several different components indeed adds to the intricacy of finding its mechanisms of actions. Indisputably, many scientists tried to elucidate the mechanisms of actions of Ginkgo. The first step to achieve this goal was to standardize the leaf extract. The standardized Ginkgo leaf extract contains 22-27 % flavonol glycosides, 2.8-3.4 % of ginkgolide A, B and C, as well as approximately 2.6-3.2 % bilobalide and below 5 ppm ginkgolic acids. A widespread standardized Ginkgo extract is the EGb 761, which was utilized in the current work. One of the earliest proposed mechanisms is the ability of the Ginkgo extract to act as an anti-oxidant, which could be explained by its high flavonoid contents. However, without doubt EGb 761 encompasses other characteristics which distinguish it from other herbal extracts that are also rich in flavonoids. Since free radicals and reactive oxygen species are highly associated with the mitochondrial functions, examination of the effect of EGb 761 on mitochondrial functions was lately addressed. Moreover, this was encouraged as the link between Alzheimer’s disease [AD] and the mitochondria started to emerge. Previously, our group observed mitochondrial protective actions of EGb 761 on cell culture in vitro. Furthermore, anti-apoptotic effects were previously described for EGb 761. However, only very few studies addressed the single constituents and their effect on mitochondrial functions. Flavonoids were studied in several other plant extracts and their radical scavenging activity is unquestionable, but EGb 761 has anti-apoptotic actions which may be attributed to its terpenoid fraction. Exclusively found in the Ginkgo plant, are the ginkgolides and therefore their actions are not yet fully elucidated. Moreover, those who attempted to address these constituents concentrated on one or two candidates, for example bilobalide or ginkgolide B and ignored the rest. Unfortunately, this led to incomplete results, and one couldn’t compare the relative activities of all EGb 761 components in order to state whether all the components are effective or not. ...
GTPase activating protein Rap1GAP2 and synaptotagmin-like protein 1 interact and are involved in platelet dense granule secretion
- Platelets are anucleate cells that play a major role in hemostasis and thrombosis in the vasculature. During primary hemostasis platelets adhere to sites of vascular damage and the initial platelet coat is reinforced by additional platelets forming a stable aggregate. At the same time platelets secrete their intracellular granules containing substances that further activate platelets in an autocrine and paracrine fashion and affect local coagulation and endothelial smooth muscle cell function. The small guanine nucleotide binding protein Rap1 regulates the activity of the platelet integrin alphaIIbbeta3 and thus platelet aggregation. Rap1 activity is controlled by guanine nucleotide exchange factors and GTPase activating proteins. In platelets, Rap1GAP2 is the only GTPase activating protein of Rap1. In order to identify Rap1GAP2-associated proteins, a genetic two-hybrid screening in yeast was performed and synaptotagmin-like protein 1 (Slp1, also called JFC1) was found as a new putative binding partner of Rap1GAP2. Slp1 is a tandem C2 domain containing protein and is known to bind to Rab27, a small GTPase involved in platelet dense granule secretion. The direct interaction between Rap1GAP2 and Slp1 was confirmed in yeast and in transfected cells. More importantly, Slp1 is expressed in platelets and binding of endogenous Rap1GAP2 and Slp1 was verified in these cells. The Rap1GAP2 and Slp1 interaction sites were mapped by mutational analysis. Rap1GAP2 binds through the -TKXT- motif within its C-terminus to the C2A domain of Slp1. Moreover, the Slp1 binding -TKXT- motif of Rap1GAP2 was confirmed by complementary approaches using short synthetic Rap1GAP2 peptides. The C2A domain of Slp1 is a phospholipid binding domain and thus mediates binding of Slp1 to the plasma membrane. Phospholipid overlay assays revealed that simultaneous binding of Slp1 via its C2A domain to Rap1GAP2 and to phospholipids can occur. In addition, the interaction between Rap1GAP2 and Slp1 is regulated by cAMP-dependent protein kinase (cAK or PKA), and kinase activation in platelets enhanced binding of endogenous Rap1GAP2 to Slp1. In-vitro phosphorylation assays revealed that Slp1 is a substrate of PKA, and serine 111 was identified as phosphorylation site. Since Slp1 is a Rab27 binding protein, a trimeric complex of Slp1, Rab27 and Rap1GAP2 is conceivable. The association of Slp1, Rab27 and Rap1GAP2 was investigated by immunofluorescence and co-immuno-precipitation experiments in both, transfected cells and platelets. By Slp1 affinity chromatography and subsequent mass spectrometric analysis additional Slp1 binding proteins were identified in platelets, and binding of Slp1 to Rab8 was confirmed in pull-down assays. To investigate the functional significance of the interaction between Rap1GAP2 and Slp1, an assay system was established to determine serotonin secretion of streptolysin-O permeabilized platelets. Addition of recombinant Slp1 protein to permeabilized platelets strongly inhibited platelet dense granule secretion, whereas addition of recombinant Rap1GAP2 protein or synthetic Rap1GAP2 peptide enhanced secretion. Deleting the Slp1 binding -TKXT- motif abolished the stimulatory effect of Rap1GAP2 on secretion. Addition of Rap1 to permeabilized platelets had no effect on secretion. These findings indicate that the Rap1GAP2 effect on platelet secretion does not depend on the GTPase activating function of Rap1GAP2, but is rather dependent on the -TKXT- mediated interaction of Rap1GAP2 with Slp1. In addition, in-vitro GAP assays revealed that Slp1 binding to Rap1GAP2 does not affect the Rap1GAP activity of Rap1GAP2, and adhesion assays excluded a role for the Rap1GAP2/Slp1 interaction in cell adhesion. Altogether, the results of the present study demonstrate that besides its function in platelet aggregation by controlling the activity of the small guanine nucleotide binding protein Rap1, Rap1GAP2 is involved in platelet dense granule secretion by the new -TKXT- mediated interaction with the Rab27 and membrane binding protein Slp1. In addition, the interaction between Rap1GAP2 and Slp1 is embedded into an elaborate network of protein-protein interactions in platelets which appear to be regulated by phosphorylation. Future studies will in particular aim to dissect the molecular details of Rap1GAP2 and Slp1 action in platelet secretion and investigate the potential biochemical and pharmacological value of the unique protein binding -TKXT- motif of Rap1GAP2.
Impact of tumour microenvironmental factors on dendritic cell differentiation and function
- Um der Erkennung durch das körpereigene Immunsystem entkommen, weisen Tumore Modifikationen in ihrer Mikroumgebung auf. Zu diesen gehören u. a. veränderte Sauerstoffkonzentrationen im Tumorkern und die Freisetzung biochemischer Faktoren aus Tumorzellen, welche die Funktion von Tumor-assoziierten Phagozyten, wie z.B. Dendritischen Zellen (DC) beeinflussen. DC sind professionelle Antigen-präsentierende Zellen, die eine Spezialisierung in verschiedene funktionale Subtypen aufweisen. Myeloische DC (mDC) sind besonders effizient in Hinsicht auf die Präsentation von Antigenen, wohingegen plasmazytoide DC (pDC) regulatorisch auf das Immunsystem einwirken. Beide Subtypen spielen eine wichtige Rolle bei der Karzinogenese.
Während humane mDC, zur therapeutischen Verwendung, ex vivo aus Monozyten hergestellt werden können, war dies für humane pDC bisher nicht möglich. Ein war deshalb ein erstes Ziel dieser Arbeit, ein Protokoll zur Generierung humaner pDC aus humanen Monozyten zu entwickeln. Diese wurden mittels des Wachstumsfaktors Fms-related tyrosine kinase 3 ligand (Flt3-L) zu pDC-Äquivalenten differenziert, welche als monocyte-derived pDC (mo-pDC) bezeichnet wurden. In der Tat zeigten mo-pDC ein für humane pDC charakteristisches Oberflächenmarkerprofil und wiesen, im Vergleich zu mDC, eine geringe Kapazität zur Induktion der Proliferation autologer T Zellen und zur Phagozytose apoptotischer Zellen auf. Mo-pDC erwarben im Verlauf ihrer Differenzierung aus Monozyten eine kontinuierlich erhöhte Expression des pDC-spezifischen Transkriptionfaktors E2-2 und seiner spezifischen Zielgene. Der wichtigste funktionale Parameter von pDC ist die Produktion großer Mengen von Interferon-α (IFN-α). Mo-pDC sezernierten, nach vorheriger Aktivierung mit Tumornekrosefaktor-α (TNF-α) oder wenn zu ihrer Differenzierung neben Flt3-L auch Vitamin D3 oder all-trans-Retinolsäure verwendet wurde, ebenfalls große Mengen IFN-α. Wurden mo-pDC unter Hypoxie, einem prominenten Faktor der Tumormikroumgebung, generiert, so waren die Expression des spezifischen Transkriptionsfaktors E2-2 und die Freisetzung von IFN-α stark vermindert. Diese Daten zeigten zunächst, dass mo-pDC für das Studium von Differenzierung und Funktion humaner pDC eingesetzt werden können.
Weiterhin lieferten sie Hinweise auf eine veränderte Differenzierung humaner pDC unter Hypoxie. In einem nächsten Schritt wurde folglich untersucht, ob Hypoxie auch die Differenzierung von pDC aus deren physiologischen Vorläufern beeinflusst. Wurden Knochenmarkszellen der Maus mit Flt3-L unter Normoxie oder Hypoxie kultiviert, so war die Differenzierung zu pDC unter Hypoxie in der Tat unterdrückt. Dies war abhängig von der Hypoxie-induzierten Aktivität des Hypoxie-induzierten Faktors 1 (HIF-1), da die Flt3-Linduzierte Differenzierung von murinen Knochenmarkszellen, in denen die Expression von HIF-1 in pDC-Vorläuferzellen ausgeschaltet war, unter Hypoxie normal verlief.
Zusammenfassend kann also gesagt werden, dass Hypoxie, durch Aktivierung von HIF-1, Differenzierung und Funktion von pDC unterdrückt. Dieser Mechanismus könnte zu ihrer beschriebenen Dysfunktion in humanen Tumoren beitragen.
Neben Hypoxie sind viele andere Faktoren an der Immunsuppression in Tumoren beteiligt.
Eine Komponente der Mikroumgebung in Tumoren ist das Vorhandensein apoptotischer Tumorzellen. Apoptose von Tumorzellen findet, im Kontrast zur generellen Sicht von Tumoren als Apoptose-resistente Entitäten, auch in unbehandelten Tumoren im Überfluss statt. Apoptotische körpereigene Zellen unterdrücken unter physiologischen Bedingungen das Immunsystem. Deshalb könnte das Freisetzen von apoptotischem Material oder die Sekretion von Faktoren aus sterbenden Tumorzellen einen starken Einfluss auf die Funktion von Tumor-assoziierten DC und die damit verbundene Aktivierung von tumoriziden Lymphozyten haben. Eine diesbezügliche Studie war das zweite Ziel der vorliegenden Arbeit. Humane mDC wurden zu diesem Zweck mit Überständen lebender, apoptotischer oder nekrotischer humaner Brustkrebszellen aktiviert und anschließend mit autologen T Zellen ko-kultiviert. Danach wurde das zytotoxische Potential der ko-kultivierten T Zellen analysiert. Interessanterweise unterdrückte die Aktivierung mit Überständen apoptotischer Tumorzellen die DC-vermittelte Generierung tumorizider T Zellen durch die Ausprägung einer Population von regulatorischen T Zellen (Treg), die durch die gleichzeitige Expression der Oberflächenmoleküle CD39 und CD69 charakterisiert war. Die Ausprägung der CD39-und CD69-exprimierenden Treg Zell-Population war abhängig von der Freisetzung des bioaktiven Lipids Sphingosin-1-Phosphat (S1P) aus apoptotischen Zellen, welches durch den S1P-Rezeptor 4 zur Freisetzung des immunregulatorischen Zytokins IL-27 aus mDC führte.
Neutralisierung von IL-27 in AC-aktivierten Ko-Kulturen von mDC und T Zellen blockierte die Generierung von CD39- und CD69-exprimierenden Treg Zellen und resultierte folglich in der Aktivierung zytotoxischer T Zellen. Weiterhin war die Bildung von Adenosin in den Ko-Kulturen für die Unterdrückung zytotoxischer T Zellen vonnöten. Erste Experimente lieferten Hinweise auf eine direkte Interaktion von CD69- und CD39-exprimierenden Treg Zellen mit CD73-exprimierenden zytotoxischen T Zellen. CD39 und CD73 werden für die Bildung von Adenosin aus ATP benötigt, weswegen die Interaktion von Treg Zellen und zytotoxischen T Zellen die Adenosin-Produktion fördern könnte.
Zusammenfassend zeigen die hier präsentierten Befunde wie Faktoren der
Tumormikroumgebung die Funktion von humanen DC Subtypen beeinflussen können. Ein Verständnis der zugrundeliegenden Mechanismen kann wertvolle Informationen für die Wahl effektiver Immuntherapien oder Chemotherapien liefern und so die Therapie humaner Tumore unterstützen.
Sphingosine 1-phosphate modulates antigen capture by murine langerhans cells via the S1P2 receptor subtype
Heinfried Hermann Radeke
Se Kyoo Jeong
- Dendritic cells (DCs) play a pivotal role in the development of cutaneous contact hypersensitivity (CHS) and atopic dermatitis as they capture and process antigen and present it to T lymphocytes in the lymphoid organs. Recently, it has been indicated that a topical application of the sphingolipid sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) prevents the inflammatory response in CHS, but the molecular mechanism is not fully elucidated. Here we indicate that treatment of mice with S1P is connected with an impaired antigen uptake by Langerhans cells (LCs), the initial step of CHS. Most of the known actions of S1P are mediated by a family of five specific G protein-coupled receptors. Our results indicate that S1P inhibits macropinocytosis of the murine LC line XS52 via S1P2 receptor stimulation followed by a reduced phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) activity. As down-regulation of S1P2 not only diminished S1P-mediated action but also enhanced the basal activity of LCs on antigen capture, an autocrine action of S1P has been assumed. Actually, S1P is continuously produced by LCs and secreted via the ATP binding cassette transporter ABCC1 to the extracellular environment. Consequently, inhibition of ABCC1, which decreased extracellular S1P levels, markedly increased the antigen uptake by LCs. Moreover, stimulation of sphingosine kinase activity, the crucial enzyme for S1P formation, is connected not only with enhanced S1P levels but also with diminished antigen capture. These results indicate that S1P is essential in LC homeostasis and influences skin immunity. This is of importance as previous reports suggested an alteration of S1P levels in atopic skin lesions.
Novel chalcone-based fluorescent human histamine H 3 receptor ligands as pharmacological tools
J. Stephan Schwed
- Novel fluorescent chalcone-based ligands at human histamine H(3) receptors (hH(3)R) have been designed, synthesized, and characterized. Compounds described are non-imidazole analogs of ciproxifan with a tetralone motif. Tetralones as chemical precursors and related fluorescent chalcones exhibit affinities at hH(3)R in the same concentration range like the reference antagonist ciproxifan (hH(3)R pK(i) value of 7.2). Fluorescence characterization of our novel ligands shows emission maxima about 570 nm for yellow fluorescent chalcones and ≥600 nm for the red fluorescent derivatives. Interferences to cellular autofluorescence could be excluded. All synthesized chalcone compounds could be used to visualize hH(3)R proteins in stably transfected HEK-293 cells using confocal laser scanning fluorescence microscopy. These novel fluorescent ligands possess high potential to be used as pharmacological tools for hH(3)R visualization in different tissues.
Consequences of altered eicosanoid patterns for nociceptive processing in mPGES-1-deficient mice
Carlo Federico Angioni
Rolf M. Nusing
- Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2)-dependent prostaglandin (PG) E2 synthesis in the spinal cord plays a major role in the development of inflammatory hyperalgesia and allodynia. Microsomal PGE2 synthase-1 (mPGES-1) isomerizes COX-2-derived PGH2 to PGE2. Here, we evaluated the effect of mPGES-1-deficiency on the noci-ceptive behavior in various models of nociception that depend on PGE2 synthesis. Surprisingly, in the COX-2-dependent zymosan-evoked hyperalgesia model, the nociceptive behavior was not reduced in mPGES-1-deficient mice despite a marked decrease of the spinal PGE2 synthesis. Similarly, the nociceptive behavior was unaltered in mPGES-1-deficient mice in the formalin test. Importantly, spinal cords and primary spinal cord cells derived from mPGES-1-deficient mice showed a redirection of the PGE2 synthesis to PGD2, PGF2α and 6-keto-PGF1α (stable metabolite of PGI2). Since the latter prostaglandins serve also as mediators of noci-ception they may compensate the loss of PGE2 synthesis in mPGES-1-deficient mice.