Störfall im Kraftwerk der Zelle : oxidativer Stress und Altern
- Was passiert auf molekularer Ebene, wenn der Körper altert? Eine Antwort darauf lautet: Es häufen sich irreparable Schäden an Zellen, an Zellbestandteilen wie den Organellen, der DNA oder Eiweißen und anderen Molekülen. DassFehler passieren, ist unvermeidlich, denn jeder Stoffwechselvorgang birgt eine gewisse Störanfälligkeit in sich. Ein junger Organismus ist dank ausgefeilter Reparatursysteme in der Lage, Fehler zu korrigieren. Nimmt diese Fähigkeit mit dem Altern ab, so treten zwei Arten von Problemen mit besonders weitreichenden Folgen auf: Fehler bei der Replikation (dem Kopieren) der DNA und molekulare Schäden, die freie Radikale anrichten. So können Defekte der DNA einerseits die Entstehung von Tumoren verursachen, andererseits aber auch Alterungsprozesse beschleunigen.
Konzentration aufs Ziel : genetische Veränderungen setzen bei der Leukämie das Verhältnis von Rot und Weiß außer Kraft
- Blut steht für Leben - und für den Tod. Das ist in der Medizin nicht anders als in der Mythologie. Vor wenigen Jahrzehnten war die Diagnose Blutkrebs noch ein sicheres Todesurteil. Heute werden viele Leukämiekranke geheilt. An der Goethe-Universität setzt ein Schwerpunkt für Lymphom- und Leukämieforschung deutschlandweit Akzente bei Forschung und Diagnostik.
The glyoxalase system as an example of a cellular maintenance pathway with relevance to aging
- Commentary on: Scheckhuber CQ et al. Modulation of the glyoxalase system in the aging model Podospora anserina: effects on growth and lifespan. Aging. 2010; 2:969-980.
The role of glyoxalases for sugar stress and aging, with relevance for dyskinesia, anxiety, dementia and Parkinson's disease
- Commentary on: Scheckhuber CQ et al. Modulation of the glyoxalase system in the aging model Podospora anserina: effects on growth and lifespan. Aging. 2010; 2: 969-980.
Modulation of the glyoxalase system in the aging model Podospora anserina: effects on growth and lifespan
Christian Q. Scheckhuber
Sandra J. Mack
Heinz D. Osiewacz
- The eukaryotic glyoxalase system consists of two enzymatic components, glyoxalase I (lactoylglutathionelyase) and glyoxalase II (hydroxyacylglutathione hydrolase). These enzymes are dedicated to the removal of toxic alpha-oxoaldehydes like methylglyoxal (MG). MG is formed as a by-product of glycolysis and MG toxicity results from its damaging capability leading to modifications of proteins, lipids and nucleic acids. An efficient removal of MG appears to be essential to ensure cellular functionality and viability. Here we study the effects of the genetic modulation of genes encoding the components of the glyoxalase system in the filamentous ascomycete and aging model Podospora anserina. Overexpression of PaGlo1 leads to a lifespan reduction on glucose rich medium, probably due to depletion of reduced glutathione. Deletion of PaGlo1 leads to hypersensitivity against MG added to the growth medium. A beneficial effect on lifespan is observed when both PaGlo1 and PaGlo2 are overexpressed and the corresponding strains are grown on media containing increased glucose concentrations. Notably, the double mutant has a ‘healthy’ phenotype without physiological impairments. Moreover, PaGlo1/PaGlo2_OEx strains are not long-lived on media containing standard glucose concentrations suggesting a tight correlation between the efficiency and capacity to remove MG within the cell, the level of available glucose and lifespan. Overall, our results identify the up-regulation of both components of the glyoxalase system as an effective intervention to increase lifespan in P. anserina. Key words: Podospora anserina, aging, lifespan, glycation, glucose, methylglyoxal, advanced glycation end products
Repetition enhancement for frequency-modulated but not unmodulated sounds: a human MEG study
Linda Verena Heinemann
Christian F. Altmann
- Background: Decoding of frequency-modulated (FM) sounds is essential for phoneme identification. This study investigates selectivity to FM direction in the human auditory system. Methodology/Principal Findings: Magnetoencephalography was recorded in 10 adults during a two-tone adaptation paradigm with a 200-ms interstimulus-interval. Stimuli were pairs of either same or different frequency modulation direction. To control that FM repetition effects cannot be accounted for by their on- and offset properties, we additionally assessed responses to pairs of unmodulated tones with either same or different frequency composition. For the FM sweeps, N1m event-related magnetic field components were found at 103 and 130 ms after onset of the first (S1) and second stimulus (S2), respectively. This was followed by a sustained component starting at about 200 ms after S2. The sustained response was significantly stronger for stimulation with the same compared to different FM direction. This effect was not observed for the non-modulated control stimuli. Conclusions/Significance: Low-level processing of FM sounds was characterized by repetition enhancement to stimulus pairs with same versus different FM directions. This effect was FM-specific; it did not occur for unmodulated tones. The present findings may reflect specific interactions between frequency separation and temporal distance in the processing of consecutive FM sweeps.
Respiratory chain complexes in dynamic mitochondria display a patchy distribution in life cells
- Background: Mitochondria, the main suppliers of cellular energy, are dynamic organelles that fuse and divide frequently. Constraining these processes impairs mitochondrial is closely linked to certain neurodegenerative diseases. It is proposed that functional mitochondrial dynamics allows the exchange of compounds thereby providing a rescue mechanism. Methodology/Principal Findings: The question discussed in this paper is whether fusion and fission of mitochondria in different cell lines result in re-localization of respiratory chain (RC) complexes and of the ATP synthase. This was addressed by fusing cells containing mitochondria with respiratory complexes labelled with different fluorescent proteins and resolving their time dependent re-localization in living cells. We found a complete reshuffling of RC complexes throughout the entire chondriome in single HeLa cells within 2–3 h by organelle fusion and fission. Polykaryons of fused cells completely re-mixed their RC complexes in 10–24 h in a progressive way. In contrast to the recently described homogeneous mixing of matrix-targeted proteins or outer membrane proteins, the distribution of RC complexes and ATP synthase in fused hybrid mitochondria, however, was not homogeneous but patterned. Thus, complete equilibration of respiratory chain complexes as integral inner mitochondrial membrane complexes is a slow process compared with matrix proteins probably limited by complete fusion. In co-expressing cells, complex II is more homogenously distributed than complex I and V, resp. Indeed, this result argues for higher mobility and less integration in supercomplexes. Conclusion/Significance: Our results clearly demonstrate that mitochondrial fusion and fission dynamics favours the re-mixing of all RC complexes within the chondriome. This permanent mixing avoids a static situation with a fixed composition of RC complexes per mitochondrion.
Synthesis of szentiamide, a depsipeptide from entomopathogenic Xenorhabdus szentirmaii with activity against Plasmodium falciparum
Friederike I. Nollmann
Helge Björn Bode
- The synthesis of the recently characterized depsipeptide szentiamide (1), which is produced by the entomopathogenic bacterium Xenorhabdus szentirmaii, is described. Whereas no biological activity was previously identified for 1, the material derived from the efficient synthesis enabled additional bioactivity tests leading to the identification of a notable activity against insect cells and Plasmodium falciparum, the causative agent of malaria.
Emergence of the mitochondrial reticulum from fission and fusion dynamics
Valerii M. Sukhorukov
Andreas S. Reichert
- Mitochondria form a dynamic tubular reticulum within eukaryotic cells. Currently, quantitative understanding of its morphological characteristics is largely absent, despite major progress in deciphering the molecular fission and fusion machineries shaping its structure. Here we address the principles of formation and the large-scale organization of the cell-wide network of mitochondria. On the basis of experimentally determined structural features we establish the tip-to-tip and tip-to-side fission and fusion events as dominant reactions in the motility of this organelle. Subsequently, we introduce a graph-based model of the chondriome able to encompass its inherent variability in a single framework. Using both mean-field deterministic and explicit stochastic mathematical methods we establish a relationship between the chondriome structural network characteristics and underlying kinetic rate parameters. The computational analysis indicates that mitochondrial networks exhibit a percolation threshold. Intrinsic morphological instability of the mitochondrial reticulum resulting from its vicinity to the percolation transition is proposed as a novel mechanism that can be utilized by cells for optimizing their functional competence via dynamic remodeling of the chondriome. The detailed size distribution of the network components predicted by the dynamic graph representation introduces a relationship between chondriome characteristics and cell function. It forms a basis for understanding the architecture of mitochondria as a cell-wide but inhomogeneous organelle. Analysis of the reticulum adaptive configuration offers a direct clarification for its impact on numerous physiological processes strongly dependent on mitochondrial dynamics and organization, such as efficiency of cellular metabolism, tissue differentiation and aging.
Ordnung der Fachbereiche Medizin, Biowissenschaften, Biochemie, Chemie und Pharmazie sowie Psychologie und Sportwissenschaften der Johann Wolfgang Goethe[-Universität] für den Masterstudiengang Interdisciplinary Neuroscience mit dem Abschluss "Master of Science" (M. Sc.) vom 30. März 2009 in der Fassung vom 22. April 2009, zuletzt geändert am 16. April 2012 : genehmigt vom Präsidium der Johann Wolfgang Goethe-Universität Frankfurt a. M. am 27. April 2010 ; hier: Änderungen vom 08.11.2012 ; genehmigt vom Präsidium der Johann Wolfgang Goethe-Universität Frankfurt a. M. am 18. Dezember 2012