The development in very young children of tacit knowledge concerning visual perception

  • The purpose of this study of early social-cognitive development was to assess the very young child's behaviorally expressed knowledge of people's visual-attentional acts and abilities. Boys and girls (N = 60) 1, 1 1/2, 2, 2 1/2, and 3 years of age were tested in their homes with their mothers' help. Three sorts of tasks were used: 1. Percept production. The child's task was to produce a visual percept in the other. Examples include pointing to objects ("productive pointing") and a wide variety of object-showing problems. 2. Percept deprivation. The opposite, exemplified by a variety of object-hiding problems. 3. Percept diagnosis. The child's task was to determine what the other was already visually attending to, either by looking where his or her finger was pointed ("receptive pointing") or where his eyes were directed. It was found that the majority of l-year-olds produced and comprehended pointing, and would sometimes hold out a toy to show it, but did little else. The 3-year-olds were at ceiling on virtually all tasks. At 1 1/2 years, children usually showed a picture by holding it flat so that both they and the other could see it. From 2 on, they usually turned it toward the other in the adult fashion. Very few children of any age showed egocentrically - i.e., orienting the picture so only they could see it. By age 2, the children solved what were presumably novel showing problems for them: e.g., successfully showing to another a picture pasted on the inside bottom of a hollow cube. Hiding ability emerged later than showing ability but seemed well established by age 3. The role of the other's eyes in seeing appeared to be quite well understood at least by age 2-2 1/2. As examples, children of this age took the other's hands away from her or his eyes before trying to show her something, and could usually tell where she was looking from her eye orientation alone. These age trends presumably reflect important developments in the area of social interaction and communication, as well as with respect to cognition about percepts.

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Author:Jacques D. Lempers, Eleanor R. Flavell, John H. Flavell
Parent Title (English):Genetic psychology monographs
Publisher:The Journal Pr.
Place of publication:Provincetown, Mass.
Document Type:Article
Date of Publication (online):2010/10/04
Year of first Publication:1977
Publishing Institution:Universitätsbibliothek Johann Christian Senckenberg
Release Date:2010/10/04
Page Number:51
First Page:3
Last Page:53
Signatur: 8 U 47.250/2
Institutes:keine Angabe Fachbereich / Extern
Dewey Decimal Classification:1 Philosophie und Psychologie / 15 Psychologie / 150 Psychologie
Licence (German):License LogoArchivex. zur Lesesaalplatznutzung § 52b UrhG