Second relapse of pediatric patients with acute myeloid leukemia: a report on current treatment strategies and outcome of the AML-BFM study group

  • Simple Summary: Children with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) experience high relapse rates of about 30%; still, survival rates following the first relapse are encouraging. Hence, it is critically important to examine the consequences of a second relapse; however, little is known about this subgroup of patients. This retrospective population-based analysis intends to describe response, survival and prognostic factors relevant for the survival of children with second relapse of AML. Treatment approaches include many different therapeutic regimens, including palliation and intensive treatment with curative intent (63% of the patients). Survival is poor; however, patients who respond to reinduction attempts can be rescued with subsequent hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. We deciphered risk factors, such as short time interval from first to second relapse below one year as being associated with a poor outcome. This analysis will help to improve future international treatment planning and patient care of children with advanced AML. Abstract: Successful management of relapse is critical to improve outcomes of children with acute myeloid leukemia (AML). We evaluated response, survival and prognostic factors after a second relapse of AML. Among 1222 pediatric patients of the population-based AML-Berlin–Frankfurt–Munster (BFM) study group (2004 until 2017), 73 patients met the quality parameters for inclusion in this study. Central review of source documentation warranted the accuracy of reported data. Treatment approaches included palliation in 17 patients (23%), intensive therapy with curative intent (n = 46, 63%) and other regimens (n = 10). Twenty-five patients (35%) received hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), 21 of whom (88%) had a prior HSCT. Survival was poor, with a five-year probability of overall survival (pOS) of 15 ± 4% and 31 ± 9% following HSCT (n = 25). Early second relapse (within one year after first relapse) was associated with dismal outcome (pOS 2 ± 2%, n = 44 vs. 33 ± 9%, n = 29; p < 0.0001). A third complete remission (CR) is required for survival: 31% (n = 14) of patients with intensive treatment achieved a third CR with a pOS of 36 ± 13%, while 28 patients (62%) were non-responders (pOS 7 ± 5%). In conclusion, survival is poor but possible, particularly after a late second relapse and an intensive chemotherapy followed by HSCT. This analysis provides a baseline for future treatment planning.

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Author:Mareike Rasche, Emma Steidel, Martin Zimmermann, Jean-Pierre Bourquin, Heidrun Boztug, Iveta Janotova, E. Anders Kolb, Thomas LehrnbecherORCiDGND, Nils von NeuhoffORCiDGND, Naghmeh Niktoreh, Nora Mühlegger, Lucie Sramkova, Jan Stary, Christiane Walter, Ursula Creutzig, Michael Dworzak, Dirk Reinhardt
Parent Title (English):Cancers
Place of publication:Basel
Document Type:Article
Date of Publication (online):2021/02/14
Date of first Publication:2021/02/14
Publishing Institution:Universitätsbibliothek Johann Christian Senckenberg
Release Date:2021/11/03
Tag:acute myeloid leukemia; childhood acute myeloid leukemia; pediatric patients; relapse; salvage therapy
Issue:4, art. 789
Page Number:13
First Page:1
Last Page:13
This work was supported by the German Cancer Aid 50-2728, 110244. M.R. is supported by the Josepha und Charlotte von Siebold program.
Dewey Decimal Classification:6 Technik, Medizin, angewandte Wissenschaften / 61 Medizin und Gesundheit / 610 Medizin und Gesundheit
Licence (German):License LogoCreative Commons - Namensnennung 4.0