A sorrow shared is a sorrow halved? Patient and parental anxiety associated with venipuncture in children before and after liver transplantation

  • Taking blood via venipuncture is part of the necessary surveillance before and after liver transplantation. The spectrum of response from children and their parents is variable, ranging from a short and limited aversion to paralyzing phobia. The aim of this retrospective, cross-sectional study was to determine the level of anxiety amongst children during venipuncture, to compare the anxiety reported by children and parents, and to identify the factors affecting the children’s and parents’ anxiety in order to develop therapeutic strategies. In total, 147 children (aged 0–17 years, 78 female) and their parents completed questionnaires. Statistical analysis was performed using qualitative and quantitative methods. Results showed that the majority of children reported anxiety and pain during venipuncture. Younger children had more anxiety (self-reported or assessed by parents). Children and parental reports of anxiety were highly correlated. However, the child’s anxiety was often reported as higher by parents than by the children themselves. The child’s general anxiety as well as the parents’ perceived stress from surgical interventions (but not the number of surgical interventions) prompted parental report of child anxiety. For children, the main stressors that correlated with anxiety and pain were factors during the blood collection itself (e.g., feeling the puncture, seeing the syringe). Parental anxiety was mainly related to circumstances before the blood collection (e.g., approaching the clinic, sitting in the waiting room). The main stressors mentioned by parents were the child’s discomfort and their inability to calm the child. Results indicate that the children’s fear of factors during the blood collection, along with the parents’ perceived stress and helplessness as well as their anticipatory anxiety are important starting points for facilitating the drawing of blood from children before and after liver transplantation, thereby supporting a better disease course in the future.

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Author:Antonia J. KaluzaORCiDGND, Anna Lisa AydinGND, Berrit L. Cordes, Gianna Ebers, Albert Fuchs, Christiane Konietzny, Rolf van DickORCiDGND, Ulrich Baumann
Parent Title (English):Children
Place of publication:Basel
Document Type:Article
Date of Publication (online):2021/08/11
Date of first Publication:2021/08/11
Publishing Institution:Universitätsbibliothek Johann Christian Senckenberg
Release Date:2021/09/28
Tag:anxiety; blood drawing; children; liver transplantation; pain; parents; venipuncture
Issue:8, art. 691
Page Number:12
First Page:1
Last Page:12
This research was funded by the Kroschke Stiftung.
Institutes:Psychologie und Sportwissenschaften
Dewey Decimal Classification:1 Philosophie und Psychologie / 15 Psychologie / 150 Psychologie
6 Technik, Medizin, angewandte Wissenschaften / 61 Medizin und Gesundheit / 610 Medizin und Gesundheit
Open-Access-Publikationsfonds:Psychologie und Sportwissenschaften
Licence (German):License LogoCreative Commons - Namensnennung 4.0