Thermodynamic approach to proton number fluctuations in baryon-rich heavy-ion matter created at moderate collision energies

  • We develop a framework to relate proton number cumulants measured in heavy-ion collisions within a momentum space acceptance to the susceptibilities of baryon number, assuming that particles are emitted from a fireball with uniform distribution of temperature and baryochemical potential, superimposed on a hydrodynamic flow velocity profile. The rapidity acceptance dependence of proton cumulants measured by the HADES Collaboration in √sNN = 2.4 GeV Au-Au appears to be consistent with thermal emission of nucleons from a grand-canonical heat bath, with the extracted baryon number susceptibilities exhibiting an hierarchy χB 4 >> −χB 3 >> χB 2 >> χB 1 . Naively, this could indicate large nonGaussian fluctuations that might point to the presence of the QCD critical point close to the chemical freeze-out at T ∼ 70 MeV and μB ∼ 850 − 900 MeV. However, the description of the experimental data at large rapidity acceptances becomes challenging once the effect of exact baryon number conservation is incorporated, suggesting that more theoretical and experimental studies are needed to reach a firm conclusion.

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Author:Volodymyr VovchenkoORCiDGND, Volker KochORCiD
Parent Title (English):Physics Letters B
Place of publication:Amsterdam
Document Type:Article
Date of Publication (online):2022/08/05
Date of first Publication:2022/08/05
Publishing Institution:Universitätsbibliothek Johann Christian Senckenberg
Release Date:2022/09/27
Page Number:6
Institutes:Physik / Physik
Dewey Decimal Classification:5 Naturwissenschaften und Mathematik / 53 Physik / 530 Physik
Licence (German):License LogoCreative Commons - Namensnennung 4.0